Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services

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Clinical Uses of Anticonvulsant Drugs Other Than for Epilepsy

Abstract

Table

Table

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Generic (Brand) NameOff-Label Clinical Uses Other Than EpilepsyLevel of Evidence for Clinical Use Demonstrating Efficacy

Acetazolamide (Diamox®)Bipolar disorderOpen-label studies
Tardive dyskinesiaPlacebo-controlled studies

Brivaracetam (Briviact®)Neuropathic painPreclinical studies

Carbamazepine (Equetro®, Tegretol®, and others)Aggression/agitation; benzodiazepine withdrawal; cocaine cravingPlacebo-controlled studies with mixed results; open-label studies
Alcohol cravingPlacebo-controlled studies
Alcohol withdrawal; bipolar disorder; pain; panic disorder; unipolar depressionPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
PTSDOpen-label studies

Clobazam (Onfi®)Alcohol withdrawal; anxietyOpen-label studies; controlled studies; placebo-controlled studies

Clonazepam (Klonopin®)Alcohol withdrawal; anxiety; insomniaOpen-label studies
Major depressionPlacebo-controlled studies
Panic disorder; restless legs syndromePlacebo-controlled studies

Clorazepate (Tranxene®)Alcohol withdrawalPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
AnxietyPlacebo-controlled studies; controlled studies
InsomniaPlacebo-controlled studies
Panic disorderControlled studies
Tardive dyskinesiaOpen-label studies

Diazepam (Valium®)Alcohol withdrawal; panic disorderPlacebo-controlled studies
Anxiety; insomniaOpen-label studies

Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom®)Bipolar disorderPhase II studies
Generalized anxiety; PTSDOpen-label studies

Gabapentin (Neurontin®)Aggression/agitation; anxiety; PTSD; tardive dyskinesiaOpen-label studies
Alcohol withdrawalControlled studies; open-label studies; placebo-controlled studies
Bipolar disorder; cocaine cravingOpen-label studies; placebo-controlled studies
InsomniaControlled studies; open-label studies
Panic disorder; social anxiety disorder; restless legs syndrome; alcohol dependencePlacebo-controlled studies

Lacosamide (Vimpat®)Diabetic neuropathic painPlacebo-controlled studies

Lamotrigine (Lamictal®, Lamictal XR®)Bipolar depression; painPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
Bipolar disorder maintenance; obesityPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
Cocaine craving; unipolar depressionControlled studies; open-label studies
PTSD; OCDOpen-label studies
SchizophreniaPlacebo-controlled studies with mixed results

Levetiracetam (Keppra®, Keppra XR®, Spritam®)Alcohol withdrawal; anxiety; bipolar mania; bipolar depression; panic disorder; PTSD; tardive dyskinesiaOpen-label studies
Social anxiety disorderOpen-label studies; placebo-controlled studies

Lorazepam (Ativan®)Anxiety; alcohol withdrawalPlacebo-controlled studies
Insomnia; catatoniaOpen-label studies

Oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR®, Trileptal®)ADHD; benzodiazepine withdrawal; generalized anxiety; PTSDOpen-label studies
Aggression/agitationPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
Alcohol cravingControlled studies; open-label studies
Alcohol withdrawal; bipolar disorderOpen-label studies; placebo-controlled studies
PainPlacebo-controlled studies with mixed results; open-label studies

Phenobarbital (Luminal®)Alcohol withdrawalControlled studies; open-label studies
Anxiety; barbiturate withdrawal; insomniaOpen-label studies
Benzodiazepine withdrawalControlled studies

Phenytoin (Dilantin®, Phenytek®)Alcohol withdrawal seizures; bipolar disorder; chronic painPlacebo-controlled studies

Pregabalin (Lyrica®)Benzodiazepine withdrawal; insomniaOpen-label studies
Generalized anxiety disorder; painPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
Social anxiety disorderPlacebo-controlled studies

Primodone (Mysoline®)Bipolar maniaOpen-label studies

Tiagabine (Gabitril®)Alcohol withdrawal; depression; pain; social anxiety disorderOpen-label studies
Cocaine cravingPlacebo-controlled studies with mixed results
Generalized anxiety disorder; insomnia; PTSDOpen-label studies; placebo-controlled studies

Topiramate (Qudexy XR®, Topamax®, Trokendi XR®)Alcohol dependencePlacebo-controlled studies; controlled studies; open-label studies
Binge eating disorder; PTSDOpen-label studies
Bipolar disorderOpen-label studies; placebo-controlled studies
Bulimia; obesityPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
OCDPlacebo-controlled studies

Valproic acid (Depakene®), valproic acid delayed release (Stavzor®), divalproex sodium delayed release (Depakote®), divalproex sodium extended release (Depakote ER®), valproate sodium injectable (Depacon®)Aggression/agitation; generalized anxiety disorder; panic disorder; PTSD; social anxiety disorderOpen-label studies
Alcohol withdrawalControlled studies
Bipolar disorder; bipolar depressionPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies

Zonisamide (Zonegran®)Binge eating disorder; obesityPlacebo-controlled studies; open-label studies
Bipolar disorder; bipolar depressionOpen-label studies
Authors

10.3928/02793695-20180731-79

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