Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services

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Drugs to Treat Depression

Abstract

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses…

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses

Generic (Brand) Name by Drug ClassSide EffectsSerious Side Effects
ANTICONVULSANT DRUG
Lamotrigine (Lamictal®)aRash, abdominal pain, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, dizziness, headache, somnolence, blurred visionStevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, liver failure
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
Aripiprazole (Abilify®)bNausea, vomiting, akathisia, dizziness, tremors, headache, insomnia, sedation, blurred vision, anxiety, restlessnessDiabetic ketoacidosis, seizures, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Brexipiprazole (Rexulti®)Weight gain/loss, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, akathisia, somnolence, tremorSyncope, seizures, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, agranulocytosis, orthostatic hypotension
Lurasidone (Latuda®)cDiarrhea, nausea, vomiting, akathisia, Parkinsonism, sedation, anxietyOrthostatic hypotension, syncope, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Olanzapine (Zyprexa®)Weight gain, somnolence or insomnia, dyslipidemia, headache, dizziness, xerostomiaNeuroleptic malignant syndrome, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, syncope, severe hypotension, stroke
Quetiapine (Seroquel® c, Seroquel XR® b)Orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, raised serum cholesterol levels, raised serum triglyceride levels, weight gain, constipation, increased appetite, xerostomia, sedation, dizziness, tremorsProlonged QT interval, syncope, seizures, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
COMBINATION DRUGS
Chlordiazepoxide/amitriptyline (Limbitrol®)dConstipation, xerostomia, dizziness, sedation, blurred visionCardiac dysrhythmia
Fluoxetine/olanzapine (Symbyax®)eOrthostatic hypotension, peripheral edema, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, raised serum triglyceride levels, weight gain, increased appetite, xerostomia, sedation, tremor, blurred vision, sexual dysfunctionDiabetic ketoacidosis, hyponatremia, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Perphenazine/amitriptyline (Triavil®)dWeight gain, constipation, xerostomia, dizziness, sedation, blurred vision, decreased sweating, photosensitivity, akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, tremors, urinary retentionCardiac dysrhythmia, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, seizures, heatstroke, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
MOOD STABILIZER DRUG
Lithium (Eskalith®, Lithobid®)fAcne, hypothyroidism, nausea, diarrhea, tremor, increased thirst, polyuriaBradyarrhythmia, ataxia, central nervous system toxicity, renal toxicity
MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIs)
Isocarboxazid (Marplan®)Constipation, nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, headache, insomniaOrthostatic hypotension, depression, hypertensive crisis, serotonin syndrome
Phenelzine (Nardil®, Nardelzine®)Orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, abdominal discomfort, constipation, dry mouth, increased liver aminotransferase level, asthenia, dizziness, dyssomnia, headache, somnolence, sexual dysfunction, fatigueHypertensive crisis, rare leukopenia, hepatic necrosis, seizure, edema of glottis, serotonin syndrome
Selegiline (Eldepryl®, EMSAM®)Oral: Nausea, dizziness, abdominal pain, dry mouth, headache, dyskinesia, confusion, hallucinations, vivid dreams, discontinuation symptoms Transdermal: Application site reactions, headache, insomnia, diarrhea, dry mouth, discontinuation symptomsOral: Hypertensive crisis, serotonin syndrome Both: Possible seizures, serotonin syndrome
Tranylcypromine (Parnate®)Agitation, anxiety, insomnia, weakness, sedation, dizziness, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, change in appetite, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, discontinuation symptoms, orthostatic hypotension, syncopeHypertensive crisis, seizures, hepatotoxicity, serotonin syndrome
NORADRENERGIC AND SPECIFIC SERTOTONERGIC ANTIDEPRESSANT (NaSSA)
Mirtazapine (Remeron®)Dry mouth, constipation, increased appetite, weight gain, sedation, dizziness, abnormal dreams, confusion, change in urinary function, hypotensionRare leukopenia
NOREPINEPHRINE AND DOPAMINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR (NDRI)
Bupropion (Aplenzin®, Forfivo XL®, Wellbutrin®, Wellbutrin SR®, Wellbutrin XL®, Zyban®)Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia, myalgia, insomnia, dizziness, headache, agitation, anxiety, tremor, abdominal pain, tinnitus, sweating, rash, hypertensionRare seizures, hypomania (more likely in patients with bipolar disorder)
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIs)
Citalopram (Celexa®) Escitalopram (Lexapro®) Fluoxetine (Prozac®, Prozac® Weekly™) Fluvoxamine (Luvox®) Paroxetine (Paxil®, Paxil CR®, Pexeva®) Sertraline (Zoloft®)Sexual dysfunction, decreased appetite, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth, insomnia, sedation, agitation, tremors, headache, dizziness, sweating, discontinuation symptoms, rare hyponatremiaSerotonin syndrome (increased incidence in individuals taking more than one antidepressant agent), bruising and rare bleeding
SEROTONIN MODULATOR AND REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
Nefazodone (Dutonin®, Serzone®)Nausea, dry mouth, constipation, dyspepsia, increased appetite, headache, dizziness, vision changes, sedation, insomnia, agitation, confusion, memory impairment, ataxia, paresthesia, asthenia, increased cough, rare postural hypotensionRare priapism, hepatic failure requiring liver transplant and/ or fatal
Trazodone (Desyrel®, Oleptro®)Nausea, vomiting, edema, blurred vision, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, sedation, fatigue, headache, incoordination, tremor, hypotension, syncope, occasional sinus bradycardia (long term), rare rashRare priapism
Vilazodone (Viibryd™)Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, dizziness, insomniaPalpitations, ventricular premature beats, serotonin syndrome
Vortioxetine (Brintellix®)Constipation, nausea, vomitingHyponatremia, rare induction of hypomania/mania, serotonin syndrome
SEROTONIN AND NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SNRIs)
Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq®, Khedezla®)Nausea, insomnia, dry mouth, dizziness, sweating, nervousness, anorexia, constipation, asthenia, discontinuation symptoms, increased blood pressure, drowsiness, anxiety, sexual dysfunctionRare induction of hypomania, bruising and rare bleeding, serotonin syndrome
Duloxetine (Cymbalta®)Nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, insomnia, sedation, sexual dysfunction, sweating, increase in blood pressure, discontinuation symptoms, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, hyponatremiaRare induction of hypomania, bruising and rare bleeding, serotonin syndrome
Levomilnacipran (Fetzima®)Nausea, vomiting, constipation, blurred vision, sweating, fast heart rate, sexual dysfunction, difficult urination, irregular heartbeat or pulseSeizure, bleeding, bruising and rare bleeding, serotonin syndrome
Milnacipran (Savella®)gIncreased blood pressure, increased heart rate, palpitations, sweating, hot flashes, constipation, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia, headache, sexual dysfunctionBleeding, serotonin syndrome, discontinuation syndrome, bruising and rare bleeding, serotonin syndrome
Venlafaxine (Effexor®, Effexor XR®)Headache, nervousness, insomnia, sedation, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, asthenia, sweating, discontinuation symptoms, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, hyponatremia, dosage-dependent increase in blood pressureRare induction of hypomania, bruising and rare bleeding, serotonin syndrome
TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS (TCAs)
Amitriptyline (Elavil®) Amoxapine (Asendin®) Clomipramine (Anafranil®) Desipramine (Norpramin®) Doxepin (Sinequan®) Imipramine (Tofranil®) Maprotiline (Ludiomil®) Nortriptyline (Pamelor®) Protriptyline (Triptil®, Vivactil®) Trimipramine (Surmontil®)Blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, change in appetite, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, unusual taste in mouth, weight change, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, sedation, headache, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sexual dysfunction, sweating, photosensitization, rash and itching, discontinuation symptoms, application site reactions (topical doxepin), possible extrapyramidal symptoms (amoxapine), possible akathisia (amoxapine), and possible tardive dyskinesia (amoxapine)Paralytic ileus, hyperthermia (TCAs/tetracyclics + anticholinergic agents), lowered seizure threshold and rare seizures, orthostatic hypotension, sudden death, arrhythmias, tachycardia, QTc prolongation, hepatic failure, increased intraocular pressure
Authors

10.3928/02793695-20170530-79

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