Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services

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Drugs to Treat Hypertension

Abstract

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses

Table

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses

Table

Generic (Brand) NameFrequent or Severe Adverse Effects
ALPHA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR BLOCKING DRUGS
Doxazosin (Cardura®), prazosin (Minipress®), terazosin (Hytrin®)Syncope, dizziness, vertigo, headache, palpitations, fluid retention, priapism
CENTRAL ALPHA-ADRENERGIC AGONIST DRUGS
Clonidine (Catapres®), guanabenz (Wytensin®), guanfacine (Tenex®), methyldopa (Aldomet®)Fatigue, sedation, dry mouth, depression, orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, heart block, rebound hypertension (with acute discontinuation). With methyldopa: hepatitis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, lupus-like syndrome.
BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR BLOCKING DRUGS
Atenolol (Tenormin®), betaxolol (Kerlone®), bisoprolol (Zebeta®), metroprolol (Lopressor®, Toprol®), nadolol (Corgard®), nebivolol (Bystolic®), propranolol (Inderal®), timolol (Blocadren®)Fatigue, depression, bradycardia, impotence, bronchospasm, decreased exercise tolerance, orthostatic hypotension, increased blood lipids, rebound hypertension or angina (with acute discontinuation)
BETA-BLOCKING DRUGS WITH INTRINSIC SYMPATHOMIMETIC ACTIVITY
Acebutolol (Sectral®), carteolol (Cartrol®), penbutolol (Levatol®), pindolol (Visken®)Similar to beta-blocking drugs (but less resting bradycardia and blood lipid changes), lupus-like syndrome (acebutolol)
BETA-BLOCKING DRUGS WITH ALPHA-1 BLOCKING ACTIVITY
Carvedilol (Coreg®), labetolol (Normodyne®)Similar to beta-blocking drugs (but more orthostatic hypotension), hepatotoxicity (labetolol)
ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) INHIBITING DRUGS
Benazepril (Lotensin®), captopril (Capoten®), enalapril (Epaned®, Vasotec®), fosinopril (Monopril®), lisinopril (Prinivil®, Zestril®), moexipril (Univasc®), perindopril (Aceon®), quinapril (Accupril®), ramipril (Altace®), trandolapril (Mavik®)Cough, hypotension, rash, acute renal failure, angioedema, hyperkalemia, loss of taste, hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, decreased lithium excretion
ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKING (ARB) DRUGS
Azilsartan medoxomil (Edarbi®), candesartan (Atacand®), eprosartan (Teveten®), irbesartan (Avapro®), losartan (Cozaar®), olmesartan medoxomil (Benicar®), telmisartan (Micardis®), valsartan (Diovan®)Similar to ACE inhibiting drugs (but less likely to cause cough, angioedema, or hepatotoxicity)
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKING (CCB) DRUGS
Diltiazem (Cardizem®, Tiazac®), verapamil (Calan®, Covera®, Isoptin®, Verelan PM®)Dizziness, headache, edema, constipation, bradycardia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, heart failure, lupus-like syndrome (diltiazem)
DIHYDROPYRIDINE CCB DRUGS
Amlodipine (Norvasc®), clevidipine (Cleviprex®), felodipine (Plendil®), isradipine (DynaCirc®), nicardipine (Cardene®), nifedipine (Adalat®, Procardia®), nisoldipine (Sular®)Dizziness, headache, edema, flushing, tachycardia, rash, gingival hyperplasia
THIAZIDE DIURETIC DRUGS
Bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin®), chlorothiazide (Diuril®), chlorthalidone (Thalitone®), diazoxide (Hyperstat®), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide®), indapamide (Lozol®), methyclothiazide (Aquatensin®, Enduron®), metolazone (Zaroxolyn®), polythiazide (Renese®)Dehydration, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, increased blood lipids, pancreatitis, rashes, sexual dysfunction, photosensitivity, decreased lithium excretion
LOOP DIURETIC DRUGS
Bumetanide (Bumex®), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®), furosemide (Lasix®), torsemide (Demadex®)Dehydration, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, metabolic alkalosis, rashes, increased blood lipids, increased lithium excretion
POTASSIUM SPARING DIURETIC DRUGS
Amiloride (Midamor®), eplerenone (Inspra®), spironolactone (Aldactone®), triamterene (Dyrenium®)Hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, rashes, gastrointestinal disturbances, headache. With spironolactone: mastodynia, gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities
CENTRAL VASODILATOR DRUGS
Hydralazine (Apresoline®), minoxidil (Loniten®)Orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, headache, dizziness, fluid retention, nasal congestion, lupus-like syndrome (hydralazine), abnormal hair growth (minoxidil)
PERIPHERAL ADRENERGIC BLOCKING DRUGS
Guanadrel (Hylorel®), guanethidine (Ismelin®)Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, sodium and water retention, retrograde ejaculation
AUTONOMIC GANGLIONIC BLOCKING DRUGS
Mecamylamine (Inversine®)Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention
RENIN BLOCKING DRUGS
Aliskiren (Tekturna®)Cough, hypotension, rash, angioedema
MONOAMINE DEPLETING DRUGS
Reserpine (Resa®)Orthostatic hypotension, lethargy, dizziness, nasal congestion, depression, nightmares, parkinsonian symptoms
ENDOTHELIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST DRUGS
Bosentan (Tracleer®)Hypotension, palpitations, peripheral edema, flushing, headache, anemia, increased liver aminotransferase level
DIURETIC COMBINATION DRUGS
Hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride (Moduretic®), hydrochlorothiazide/spironolactone (Aldactazide®), hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene (Dyazide®, Maxzide®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
BETA-BLOCKER DIURETIC COMBINATION DRUGS
Atenolol/chlorthalidone (Tenoretic®), bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Ziac®), metoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Lopressor HCT®), nadolol/bendroflumethiazide (Corzide®), propranolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Inderide®), timolol/hydrochlorothiazide (Timolide®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
ACE INHIBITOR DIURETIC COMBINATION DRUGS
Benazepril/hydrochlorothiazide (Lotensin HCT®), captopril/hydrochlorothiazide (Capozide®), enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide (Vaseretic®), fosinopril/hydrochlorothiazide (Monopril HCT®), lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide (Prinzide®, Zestoretic®), moexipril/hydrochlorothiazide (Uniretic®), quinapril/hydrochlorothiazide (Accuretic®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
ARB DIURETIC COMBINATION DRUGS
Azilsartan medoxomil/chlorthalidone (Edarbyclor®), candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Atacand HCT®), eprosartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Teveten HCT®), irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Avalide®), losartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Hyzaar®), olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide (Benicar HCT®), telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Micardis HCT®), valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Diovan HCT®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
CCB ACE INHIBITOR COMBINATION DRUGS
Amlodipine/benazepril (Lotrel®), amlodipine besylate/perindopril arginine (Prestalia®), verapamil/trandolapril (Tarka®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
CCB ARB COMBINATION DRUGS
Amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (Azor®), amlodipine/valsartan (Exforge®), telmisartan/amlodipine (Twynsta®)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination
OTHER COMBINATION DRUGS
Aliskiren/amlodipine (Tekamlo), aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (Amturnide), aliskiren/valsartan (Valturna®), amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Exforge HCT®), clonidine/chlorthalidone (Clorpres®, Combipres®), hydralazine/hydrochlorothiazide (Apresazide®), methyldopa/hydrochlorothiazide (Aldoril®), olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (Tribenzor)Similar to the constituent drugs in the combination

10.3928/02793695-20160106-01

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