Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services

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Drugs to Treat Depression

Abstract

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses

Table

A handy source of up-to-date information on current medications for psychiatric illnesses

Table

Generic (Brand) Name by Drug ClassSide EffectsSerious Side Effects
ANTICONVULSANT DRUG
Lamotrigine (Lamictal®)aRash, abdominal pain, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, dizziness, headache, somnolence, blurred visionStevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, liver failure
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
Aripiprazole (Abilify®)bConstipation, nausea, vomiting, akathisia, dizziness, tremors, headache, insomnia, sedation, blurred vision, anxiety, restlessnessProlonged QT interval, diabetic ketoacidosis, seizures, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Quetiapine (Seroquel® c, Seroquel XR® b)Orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, raised serum cholesterol levels, raised serum triglyceride levels, weight gain, constipation, increased appetite, xerostomia, sedation, dizziness, tremorsCardiac arrhythmia, syncope, seizures, dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
COMBINATION DRUGS
Chlordiazepoxide/amitriptyline (Limbitrol®)dSweating, constipation, xerostomia, dizziness, sedation, blurred visionCardiac dysrhythmia, suicidal thoughts
Fluoxetine/olanzapine (Symbyax®)eOrthostatic hypotension, peripheral edema, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, raised serum triglyceride levels, weight gain, increased appetite, xerostomia, sedation, tremor, blurred vision, sexual dysfunctionDiabetic ketoacidosis, hyponatremia, dyskinesia, suicidal thoughts, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Perphenazine/amitriptyline (Triavil®)dWeight gain, constipation, xerostomia, dizziness, sedation, blurred vision, decreased sweating, photosensitivity, akathisia, dyskinesia, dystonia, tremors, urinary retentionCardiac dysrhythmia, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, seizures, suicidal thoughts, heatstroke, neuroleptic malignant syndrome
MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIs)
Isocarboxazid (Marplan®)Phenelzine (Nardil®, Nardelzine®)Dizziness, sedation, headache, sleep disturbances, fatigue, weakness, tremor, movement problems, blurred vision, increased sweating, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, change in appetite, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, discontinuation symptoms, orthostatic hypotension (dosage related), syncope may develop at high dosagesHypertensive crisis (especially when MAOIs are used with certain tyramine-containing foods or drugs), induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior, seizures, hepatotoxicity
Selegiline (Eldepryl®, EMSAM®)Oral: Nausea, dizziness, abdominal pain, dry mouth, headache, dyskinesia, confusion, hallucinations, vivid dreams, discontinuation symptoms Transdermal: Application site reactions, headache, insomnia, diarrhea, dry mouth, discontinuation symptomsOral: Hypertensive crisis (especially when MAOIs are used with certain tyramine-containing foods or drugs) Both: Possible induction of mania and seizures, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
Tranylcypromine (Parnate®)Agitation, anxiety, insomnia, weakness, sedation, dizziness, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, change in appetite, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, discontinuation symptoms, orthostatic hypotension (dosage related), syncope may develop at high dosagesHypertensive crisis (especially when MAOIs are used with certain tyramine-containing foods or drugs), induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior, seizures, hepatotoxicity
NORADRENERGIC AND SPECIFIC SERTOTONERGIC ANTIDEPRESSANT (NaSSA)
Mirtazapine (Remeron®)Dry mouth, constipation, increased appetite, weight gain, sedation, dizziness, abnormal dreams, confusion, influenza-like symptoms, change in urinary function, hypotensionRare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
NOREPINEPHRINE AND DOPAMINE REUPTAKE INHIBITOR (NDRI)
Bupropion (Aplenzin®, Forfivo XL®, Wellbutrin®, Wellbutrin SR®, Wellbutrin XL®, Zyban®)Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, anorexia, myalgia, insomnia, dizziness, headache, agitation, anxiety, tremor, abdominal pain, tinnitus, sweating, rash, hypertensionRare seizures, hypomania (more likely in bipolar patients), rare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIs)
Citalopram (Celexa®)Escitalopram (Lexapro®)Fluoxetine (Prozac®, Prozac® Weekly™)Fluvoxamine (Luvox®)Paroxetine (Paxil®, Paxil CR®)Sertraline (Zoloft®)Sexual dysfunction, decreased appetite, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth, insomnia, sedation, agitation, tremors, headache, dizziness, sweating, bruising and rare bleeding, discontinuation symptoms, rare hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretionRare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior, serotonin syndrome (increased incidence in individuals taking more than one antidepressant agent)
SEROTONIN AGONIST AND REUPTAKE INHIBITOR
Vilazodone (Viibryd™)Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, serotonin discontinuation syndrome, bruising and rare bleeding, rare hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretionRare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior, serotonin syndrome (increased incidence in individuals taking more than one antidepressant agent)
SEROTONIN ANTAGONIST AND REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SARIs)
Nefazodone (Dutonin®, Serzone®)Nausea, dry mouth, constipation, dyspepsia, increased appetite, headache, dizziness, vision changes, sedation, insomnia, agitation, confusion, memory impairment, ataxia, paresthesia, asthenia, increased cough, rare postural hypotensionRare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior, rare priapism, hepatic failure requiring liver transplant and/or fatal
Trazodone (Desyrel®, Oleptro®)Nausea, vomiting, edema, blurred vision, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, sedation, fatigue, headache, incoordination, tremor, hypotension, syncope, occasional sinus bradycardia (long term), rare rashRare priapism, rare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
SEROTONIN AND NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SNRIs)
Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq®)Nausea, insomnia, dry mouth, dizziness, sweating, nervousness, anorexia, constipation, asthenia, discontinuation symptoms, increased blood pressureRare induction of hypomania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
Duloxetine (Cymbalta®)Nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, insomnia, sedation, sexual dysfunction, sweating, increase in blood pressure, discontinuation symptoms, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, hyponatremiaRare induction of hypomania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
Milnacipran (Savella®)fIncreased blood pressure, increased heart rate, palpitations, sweating, hot flashes, constipation, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia, headache, sexual dysfunctionBleeding, serotonin syndrome, suicidal thoughts, discontinuation syndrome
Venlafaxine (Effexor®, Effexor XR®)Headache, nervousness, insomnia, sedation, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, asthenia, sweating, discontinuation symptoms, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, hyponatremia, dosage-dependent increase in blood pressureRare induction of hypomania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior
TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS (TCAs)
Amitriptyline (Elavil®)Amoxapine (Asendin®)Clomipramine (Anafranil®)Desipramine (Norpramin®)Doxepin (Sinequan®)Imipramine (Tofranil®)Maprotiline (Ludiomil®)Nortriptyline (Pamelor®)Protriptyline (Triptil®, Vivactil®)Trimipramine (Surmontil®)Blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, change in appetite, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, unusual taste in mouth, weight change, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, sedation, headache, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sexual dysfunction, sweating, photosensitization, rash and itching, discontinuation symptoms, application site reactions (topical doxepin), possible extrapyramidal symptoms (amoxapine), possible akathisia (amoxapine), and possible tardive dyskinesia (amoxapine)Paralytic ileus, hyperthermia (TCAs/tetracyclics + anticholinergic agents), lowered seizure threshold and rare seizures, orthostatic hypotension, sudden death, arrhythmias, tachycardia, QTc prolongation, hepatic failure, increased intraocular pressure, rare induction of mania, rare activation of suicidal ideation and/or behavior

10.3928/02793695-20120607-77

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