An increased risk for developing dementia was linked with traumatic brain injury in older adults, according to new research.
Researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study of 164,661 patients with trauma identified in a California statewide health care database. Using ICD-9 codes, 31.5% of those patients were diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Of those, 8.4% developed dementia compared with 5.9% of patients with non-TBI trauma (P<.001). TBI was associated with increased overall risk for dementia (HR=1.46; 95% CI, 1.41-1.52).
When researchers adjusted the data for covariates, they observed little effect except when adjusting for age (aHR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.21-1.32).
Stratified adjusted analyses showed that moderate to severe TBI was associated with increased risk for dementia across all age groups (patients aged 55 to 64 years, HR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; vs. patients aged 65 to 74 years, HR=1.46; 95% CI, 1.3-1.64).The researchers also said mild TBI may be a more important risk factor linked with age (patients aged 55 to 64 years, HR=1.11; 95% CI, 0.8-1.53; vs. patients aged 65 to 74 years, HR=1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.51).
“Among patients evaluated in the ED or inpatient settings, those with moderate to severe TBI at 55 years or older or mild TBI at 65 years or older had an increased risk of developing dementia,” the researchers concluded. “Younger adults may be more resilient to the effects of recent mild TBI than older adults.”
Disclosure: See the study for a full list of relevant financial disclosures.