LOS ANGELES — Rhinovirus strains A and C were the most prevalent causes of respiratory tract infection among a cohort of preschool aged children, according to data presented at the 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology annual meeting.
“Rhinovirus A and C were most commonly detected in nasal samples collected during respiratory tract illnesses [RTI],” Alalia W. Berry, MD, of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, told Infectious Diseases in Children. “Nearly all RTI leading to the need for systemic steroids in the Azithromycin for Preventing the Development of Upper Respiratory Tract Illness into Lower Respiratory Tract Symptoms (APRIL) study were associated with a viral infection.”
Alalia W. Berry
Berry and colleagues collected nasopharyngeal samples from 1,983 preschool-aged children enrolled in the APRIL study. Samples were analyzed for virus type using PCR and partial sequencing. The researchers tested for adenoviruses, coronaviruses, bocavirus, enterovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus and rhinovirus types A, B and C.
Study results showed that virus prevalence was found in 87% of RTIs with treatment failure, 78% of RTIs without treatment failure and 38% of non-RTI positive samples. Rhinoviruses C (25%) and A (22%) were the most common types identified.
The researchers wrote that treatment failure was most prevalent among patients infected with rhinovirus C, translating to a 2.4-fold increased likelihood of treatment failure for patients with this virus type (P = .01). There was no significantly increased likelihood of treatment failure associated with any other tested virus type.
“Participants with respiratory tract illnesses induced by rhinovirus C had significantly increased risk of treatment failure leading to systemic corticosteroid use,” Berry said. – by David Costill
Berry AW, et al. Abstract 358. Presented at: the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Annual Meeting; March 4-7, 2016; Los Angeles.
Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.