Pediatric Annals

CME Article 

Acute Bacterial Pneumonia in Childhood in the Current Era

Charles R. Woods, MD, MS

Abstract

Acute lower respiratory tract infections (aLRTI) remain a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is broadly defined as a subset of aLRTI of any etiology with fever ≥ 38° C accompanied by lower respiratory tract signs plus radiologic evidence of abnormality in one or both lungs. Multiple other definitions, including fully clinical definitions, are used in different geographic settings, and this has made precise estimation of the childhood burden of pneumonia difficult to assess. In North American and Europe, children < 5 years experience 36 to 40 cases of pneumonia/1,000 population per year, while those 5 to 14 years experience 11 to 16 cases/1,000 population per year. In developing countries, the rates of pneumonia may be 10- to 12-fold higher, leading to more than 2 million deaths per year among children under 5 years.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, is Professor, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Medicine.

Address correspondence to: Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, 571 South Floyd Street, Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202; or e-mail charles.woods@louisville.edu.

Dr. Woods has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: Pfizer: Member of Speakers’ Bureau.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Review the etiologic agents typically encountered in acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  2. Discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  3. Recommend evidence-based management strategies for acute bacterial pneumonias in children.

Abstract

Acute lower respiratory tract infections (aLRTI) remain a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is broadly defined as a subset of aLRTI of any etiology with fever ≥ 38° C accompanied by lower respiratory tract signs plus radiologic evidence of abnormality in one or both lungs. Multiple other definitions, including fully clinical definitions, are used in different geographic settings, and this has made precise estimation of the childhood burden of pneumonia difficult to assess. In North American and Europe, children < 5 years experience 36 to 40 cases of pneumonia/1,000 population per year, while those 5 to 14 years experience 11 to 16 cases/1,000 population per year. In developing countries, the rates of pneumonia may be 10- to 12-fold higher, leading to more than 2 million deaths per year among children under 5 years.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, is Professor, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Medicine.

Address correspondence to: Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, 571 South Floyd Street, Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202; or e-mail charles.woods@louisville.edu.

Dr. Woods has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: Pfizer: Member of Speakers’ Bureau.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Review the etiologic agents typically encountered in acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  2. Discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  3. Recommend evidence-based management strategies for acute bacterial pneumonias in children.

Acute lower respiratory tract infections (aLRTI) remain a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is broadly defined as a subset of aLRTI of any etiology with fever > 38° C accompanied by lower respiratory tract signs plus radiologic evidence of abnormality in one or both lungs. Multiple other definitions, including fully clinical definitions, are used in different geographic settings, and this has made precise estimation of the childhood burden of pneumonia difficult to assess. In North American and Europe, children < 5 years experience 36 to 40 cases of pneumonia/1,000 population per year, while those 5 to 14 years experience 11 to 16 cases/1,000 population per year. In developing countries, the rates of pneumonia may be 10- to 12-fold higher, leading to more than 2 million deaths per year among children under 5 years.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, is Professor, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Medicine.

Address correspondence to: Charles R. Woods, MD, MS, 571 South Floyd Street, Suite 321, Louisville, KY 40202; or e-mail charles.woods@louisville.edu.

Dr. Woods has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: Pfizer: Member of Speakers’ Bureau.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Review the etiologic agents typically encountered in acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  2. Discuss the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of acute bacterial pneumonias in children.
  3. Recommend evidence-based management strategies for acute bacterial pneumonias in children.

10.3928/00904481-20081001-11

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