Orthopedics

Feature Article 

Predictors of Local Recurrence in High-grade Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Hydrogen Peroxide as a Local Adjuvant

Adam N. Wooldridge, MD, MPH; Gregory P. Kolovich, MD, MPH; Martha K. Crist, RN; Joel L. Mayerson, MD; Thomas J. Scharschmidt, MD

Abstract

Soft tissue sarcomas have a mortality rate of 40% to 60%, with local recurrence being a poor prognostic factor for overall survival. Three-percent nondiluted hydrogen peroxide is hypothesized to be an effective local adjuvant.

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for local recurrence in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas and to determine whether using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant reduced the risks of local recurrence and surgical-site infection. Retrospective data were collected for 106 patients surgically treated for high-grade soft tissue sarcomas between 2002 and 2010. The primary endpoint was local recurrence. Eighteen (16.98%) cases of local recurrence occurred. Predictors of local recurrence were margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology (ie, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor), with hazard ratios of 4.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–14.95), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.35), and 9.21 (95% CI, 2.11–40.16), respectively. Hydrogen peroxide yielded a statistically insignificant improvement in local recurrence, with a hazard ratio of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.27–2.48) and a reduced risk of surgical site infection, with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.15–1.81).

Margin status, increased blood loss, and histologic subtype are associated with increased local recurrence risk. Using hydrogen peroxide improved local control and infection rates, but the difference was not statistically significant.

The authors are from the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation (ANW), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas; and the Department of Orthopaedics (GPK, MKC, JLM, TJS), The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

The authors have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

This study was performed at Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Correspondence should be addressed to: Thomas J. Scharschmidt, MD, Division of Musculoskeletal Oncology, College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, 725 Prior Hall, Columbus, OH 43221-3502 (thomas.scharschmidt@osumc.edu).

Abstract

Soft tissue sarcomas have a mortality rate of 40% to 60%, with local recurrence being a poor prognostic factor for overall survival. Three-percent nondiluted hydrogen peroxide is hypothesized to be an effective local adjuvant.

The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for local recurrence in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas and to determine whether using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant reduced the risks of local recurrence and surgical-site infection. Retrospective data were collected for 106 patients surgically treated for high-grade soft tissue sarcomas between 2002 and 2010. The primary endpoint was local recurrence. Eighteen (16.98%) cases of local recurrence occurred. Predictors of local recurrence were margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology (ie, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor), with hazard ratios of 4.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–14.95), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.35), and 9.21 (95% CI, 2.11–40.16), respectively. Hydrogen peroxide yielded a statistically insignificant improvement in local recurrence, with a hazard ratio of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.27–2.48) and a reduced risk of surgical site infection, with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.15–1.81).

Margin status, increased blood loss, and histologic subtype are associated with increased local recurrence risk. Using hydrogen peroxide improved local control and infection rates, but the difference was not statistically significant.

The authors are from the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation (ANW), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas; and the Department of Orthopaedics (GPK, MKC, JLM, TJS), The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

The authors have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

This study was performed at Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Correspondence should be addressed to: Thomas J. Scharschmidt, MD, Division of Musculoskeletal Oncology, College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, The Ohio State University, 725 Prior Hall, Columbus, OH 43221-3502 (thomas.scharschmidt@osumc.edu).

Soft tissue sarcomas are rare entities of mesenchymal origin with mortality rates of 40% to 60%.1 In the United States in 2011, an estimated 10,980 cases of soft tissues sarcoma with an estimated 3920 deaths occurred.2 Overall mortality is negatively affected by local recurrence.3–6 Improvements in local control are important because local recurrence rates have been reported at 13% to 27%.7–9 Previous studies have reported age, margin status, grade, and histology as local recurrence predictors.3,9–10 Margin status is consistently associated with a risk of local recurrence. The application of a tumoricidal agent as a local adjuvant to the tumor bed has been hypothesized to decrease local recurrence rates.11 In vitro studies demonstrated cytotoxic activity of hydrogen peroxide in brain12 and breast13 cancer. Retrospective reviews of hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant for giant cell tumor of bone have been effective.14–16 To the current authors’ knowledge, no studies have reported using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas.

Due to the rarity of soft tissue sarcomas, ascertaining which factors improve local control is difficult. Radiation, used neoadjuvantly or adjuvantly, has reduced the local recurrence rate; however, it is associated with complications, such as infection, edema, and fibrosis. The increased usage of limb-salvage surgery instead of amputation has made local control more important. Therefore, the authors examined (1) whether additional patient and tumor variables (ie, age, tumor size, depth, location, and blood loss) affected the risk of local recurrence, and (2) whether using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant reduced the local recurrence risk. In addition, the authors assessed whether using hydrogen peroxide was associated with a reduced surgical-site infection risk.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective evaluation was approved by the institutional review board (protocol #2010C0011). Data were collected for 127 patients evaluated and treated by a single surgeon (T.J.S.) for high-grade soft tissue sarcoma between 2002 and 2010. One hundred six patients were included in the final analysis. Ten patients were excluded due to presentation with local recurrence and 11 patients were excluded due to inability to ascertain pre- and postoperative radiation and chemotherapy information from the medical records. All tumors in the analysis were deep (relative to the investing fascia) and high grade.

Patient demographics and tumor characteristics were collected from a retrospective review. Patient characteristics included age, sex, and race. Tumor data collected included size in centimeters (for the largest diameter), location (ie, upper extremity, central, or proximal lower and distal lower extremity), and histopathology. Histological subtypes included malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

Prognostic factors (ie, death, distant metastasis, and local recurrence) and the time frames in which they occurred were collected. Additional clinical factors collected were the use of pre- or postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, presence of comorbid diseases (eg, diabetes mellitus and immune disorders), history of previous infections, operative time (minutes), incision size (cm), estimated blood loss (per 100-mL increase), transfusion requirement, whether resection occurred at another institution, use of hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant, surgical-site infections (as defined by the Centers for Disease Control),17 and time to infection.

Descriptive data are listed in Table 1. Use of hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant was confirmed in 79 (74.5%) of 106 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 57.5 years, and 53.8% of patients were women. Median excised tumor size was 7.25 cm, and the most common location was the proximal lower extremity (47.2%). Twelve (11.3%) instances occurred of close/positive margins, and the most common histologic subtype was malignant fibrous histiocytoma (55 [51.9%] patients). Local recurrence occurred in 18 (16.98%) patients, with a median time to local recurrence of 27 months. Moreover, 11 (10.3%) patients acquired a surgical-site infection, whereas 10 (9.4%) patients had a wound complication (eg, wound breakdown or flap necrosis).

Patient Demographics and Tumor Characteristics

Table 1: Patient Demographics and Tumor Characteristics

Demographic and clinical variables were summarized and compared using Wilcoxon rank sum, chi-square, or Fisher’s exact tests. Descriptive summaries of continuous variables were presented in terms of interquartile range, whereas discrete variables were summarized in terms of frequencies and percentages. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for local recurrence were estimated with univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.18 The multivariable model was estimated using stepwise hierarchical backward selection. The proportional hazards assumption was assessed by testing the interaction of follow-up time and testing of Schoenfeld residuals. No significant deviations occurred from the proportional hazards assumption. Analyses were conducted with Stata version 12 software (StataCorp, College State, Texas). Statistical tests were 2-sided, and a P value less than .05 indicated statistical significance.

Results

During follow-up (average follow-up, 7.13 years), 18 (16.98%) cases of local recurrence occurred. Although hydrogen peroxide appeared to lengthen the time to local recurrence compared with not using hydrogen peroxide (27 vs 24.2 months, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant (P=.915). The overall probability of local recurrence during follow-up is shown in Figure 1. Of the 16 variables considered in univariable analysis, margin status, postoperative metastasis, estimated blood loss, and histologic subtype were associated with a higher local recurrence risk (Figure 2; Table 2). Stepwise backward hierarchical selection yielded 3 predictors of local recurrence: margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology (Figure 3; Table 3). During follow-up, the risk of local recurrence among those with close or positive margins was 4.44 (95% CI, 1.32–14.95) times those with negative margins. The risk of local recurrence for a 100-mL increase in estimated blood loss was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.35) times those with no change in estimated blood loss. During the 7-year follow-up, the instantaneous risk of local recurrence among those with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor was 9.21 (95% CI, 2.11–40.16) times those with a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Local recurrence probabilities for the follow-up period adjusted for margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology are shown in Figure 3. No difference existed in the probability of local recurrence between the hydrogen peroxide and no hydrogen peroxide groups (P=.712) (Figure 4).

Kaplan-Meier curve for local recurrence without adjustment showing that the overall probability of local recurrence was 56.7% (95% confidence interval, 34.1%–74.2%) by the end of follow-up. Y-axis: survival rate.

Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier curve for local recurrence without adjustment showing that the overall probability of local recurrence was 56.7% (95% confidence interval, 34.1%–74.2%) by the end of follow-up. Y-axis: survival rate.

Kaplan-Meier curves comparing local recurrence in positive vs negative margins (A), for different histologies (B), for estimated blood loss (C), and for postoperative metastasis (D). Of the 16 variables included in univariable analysis, 4 were associated with a higher local recurrence risk: positive margins (A), histology (B), estimated blood loss (C), and postoperative metastasis (D). Y-axis: survival rate. Abbreviations: Mets, metastases; MFH, malignant fibrous histiocytoma; MPNST, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Post-op, postoperative.

Figure 2: Kaplan-Meier curves comparing local recurrence in positive vs negative margins (A), for different histologies (B), for estimated blood loss (C), and for postoperative metastasis (D). Of the 16 variables included in univariable analysis, 4 were associated with a higher local recurrence risk: positive margins (A), histology (B), estimated blood loss (C), and postoperative metastasis (D). Y-axis: survival rate. Abbreviations: Mets, metastases; MFH, malignant fibrous histiocytoma; MPNST, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Post-op, postoperative.

Secondary Outcome: Surgical-site Infection

Table 2: Secondary Outcome: Surgical-site Infection

Adjusted Kaplan-Meier curve controlling for the variables of margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology. Y-axis: survival rate.

Figure 3: Adjusted Kaplan-Meier curve controlling for the variables of margin status, estimated blood loss, and histology. Y-axis: survival rate.

Predictors of Local Recurrence

Table 3: Predictors of Local Recurrence

Graph showing the local recurrence curve for hydrogen peroxide. No statistically significant relationship existed in local recurrence between patients treated with (solid line) and without (dotted line) hydrogen peroxide. Y-axis: survival rate.

Figure 4: Graph showing the local recurrence curve for hydrogen peroxide. No statistically significant relationship existed in local recurrence between patients treated with (solid line) and without (dotted line) hydrogen peroxide. Y-axis: survival rate.

Regarding the authors’ secondary focus, 11 (10.4%) surgical-site infections occurred. The proportion of patients with surgical-site infections was smaller in the hydrogen peroxide group than the no hydrogen peroxide group (8.86% vs 14.8%, respectively), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.466) (Table 3). In the univariable and multivariable analyses, only age was associated with an increased surgical-site infection risk (Table 4). During follow-up, a 10-year increase in age correlated with a 1.56-times higher (95% CI, 1.04–2.35) risk of local recurrence. Although statistically insignificant, the surgical-site infection risk among patients receiving hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.15–1.81) times higher than those receiving no local adjuvant. No association existed between operative time (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI, 0.996–1.01) or incision size (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96–1.05). Although well-established risk factors for infection (eg, comorbid disease, previous infections, and postoperative wound complications) were associated with an increased surgical-site infection risk, they did not reach statistical significance.

Factors Predictive of Surgical-site Infection

Table 4: Factors Predictive of Surgical-site Infection

Discussion

Due to the strong association between local recurrence and sarcoma-related death, a better understanding of prognostic factors and how to improve local control is needed. Therefore, the authors determined which prognostic factors influence local recurrence and whether using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant reduces the risk of local recurrence and surgical-site infection.

The current study had limitations. Because the sample included 106 patients with 18 local recurrences, the maximum number of predictors for a multivariable model was limited. Therefore, the probability of an increase in type II error was considerable. Hazard ratios could not be reported for liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma due to the small sample size. Given the retrospective nature of the study, a high probability exists of selection bias with well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Factors not included in the analysis were time to chemotherapy and radiotherapy or types of chemotherapy and radiation doses. Amputations and proximity to neurovascular structures were typically associated with no hydrogen peroxide in the current cohort. However, the authors could not definitely note these scenarios from the medical record without introducing recall bias. Inability to control these factors increases type II error and biases the result to the null hypothesis. Nonetheless, this is a relatively large series focusing specifically on outcomes in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas.

In the current report, margin status, estimated blood loss, and histologic subtype were predictors of local recurrence. Previous studies have reported correlations between margin status and histologic subtypes.3,9–10,19–22 Controlling margin status is critical in preventing local recurrence. The hazard ratios observed in the current analysis are similar to those reported in the literature.9,23 In the creation of a nomogram for the local recurrence risk reported by Cahlon et al,9 a review of 684 patients with primary, nonmetastatic disease yielded an estimated hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% CI, 1.49–3.77) for positive/close margins. In a review of 278 patients comparing primary vs re-excision by Alamanda et al,23 positive margins yielded an estimated hazard ratio of 3.76 (95% CI, 2.2–6.40).

Difficult resections near neurovascular structures increase the likelihood of close margins. Although radiotherapy can improve local control,24 treatments are often delayed due to poor wound healing. Intraoperative local adjuvants provide an opportunity to improve local control. Hydrogen peroxide has been used as a local adjuvant in the control of giant cell tumor of bone.14–16 Using hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant did not change the proportion of patients with local recurrence compared with patients receiving no local adjuvant (17.7% vs 14.8%, respectively; P=.99). Although the median time to local recurrence was longer in the hydrogen peroxide group than the no hydrogen peroxide group (27 vs 24.2 months, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant (P=.915). The hazard ratio for local recurrence with hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant during follow-up was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.264–2.48). Due to the limited number of local recurrences (n=4) in the patients who received no hydrogen peroxide (n=27), conclusions cannot be drawn on the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant due to increased type II error that biases the result to the null hypothesis. Although the decreased risk of local recurrence observed with hydrogen peroxide therapy was not statistically significant, this does not preclude hydrogen peroxide as a clinically significant adjuvant.

Estimated blood loss increased the risk of local recurrence. It was hypothesized that the association between estimated blood loss and local recurrence risk was due to blood transfusions. In a study on colon cancer, Amato and Pescatori25 reported an increased risk for local recurrence if the patient received a blood transfusion. The hypothesis that blood transfusion mechanism increased the local recurrence risk is due to immunomodulation.26 This theory is also an explanation for why local recurrence is more prominent in older patients.27,28 For patients receiving a packed red blood cell transfusion, the local recurrence risk was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.45–4.39) times higher than those receiving no transfusion. The association most likely did not reach statistical significance due to the sample size and collinearity with estimated blood loss. The current results are similar to those in a report of 232 patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma by Heslin et al29 that reported no association between blood transfusion and local recurrence (P=.26). However, Newcomer et al30 reported a relationship between transfusions and postoperative metastasis risk (P=.037).

Several studies have determined the increased risk of local recurrence with varying histologic subtypes. In a nomogram for local recurrence, Cahlon et al9 estimated that all histologic subtypes as compared with well-differentiated liposarcoma had 2.86 (95% CI, 1.28–6.42) times the risk of local recurrence. Pisters et al31 reported that fibrosarcoma had 2.5 (95% CI, 1.4–4.4) times the risk and that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor had 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2–2.7) times the risk of local recurrence. Histologic subtype and grade are vital in patient counseling and have been integrated into nomograms predicting mortality and local recurrence by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Sarcoma Registry.32

Although hydrogen peroxide reduced the surgical-site infection risk (hazard ratio=0.52) in the current study, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.308). Comorbid disease, previous infections, and wound quality are commonly associated with increased infection risk. Although the current results showed increased risk for these factors, they did not reach statistical significance. Due to the low incidence of surgical-site infections, a larger sample size is needed to determine whether the differences reach statistical significance.

Conclusion

Increased risk of local recurrence was associated with positive margin status, increased estimated blood loss, and histologic subtype (ie, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor), which is consistent with previous research.3,9,10 Particular emphasis should be placed on obtaining negative margins and meticulous hemostasis to decrease local recurrence. Hydrogen peroxide reduced the risks of local recurrence and surgical-site infection, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The authors recommend using hydrogen peroxide as a low-risk, low-cost local adjuvant. Although the current results did not reach statistical significance, hydrogen peroxide should not be ruled out as a clinically relevant local adjuvant. Further studies are needed to explore hydrogen peroxide as a local adjuvant. Appropriate validation with future randomized, controlled trials or meta-analyses is needed to determine whether hydrogen peroxide or other local adjuvants can improve local control.

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Patient Demographics and Tumor Characteristics

VariableFactorReceiving Hydrogen Peroxide
PTotal (N=106)
Yes (n=79)No (n=27)
Median age (IQR), y57 (46–70)59 (33–73).630a57.5 (45–70)
Sex, No. (%)Male37 (46.8)12 (44.4).830b49 (46.2)
Female42 (53.2)15 (55.5)57 (53.8)
Race, No. (%)White71 (89.9)25 (92.6).99c96 (90.6)
Other8 (10.1)2 (7.41)10 (9.43)
Median size (IQR), cm7 (4.5–12)7.5 (4.8–14.5).674a7.25 (4.8–12)
Location, No. (%)dUpper extremity13 (16.5)3 (11.1).030c16 (15.1)
Central11 (13.9)4 (14.8)15 (14.2)
Proximal lower extremity42 (53.2)8 (29.6)50 (47.2)
Distal lower extremity12 (15.2)13 (48.2)25 (23.6)
Microscopic margin, No. (%)Negative70 (88.6)24 (88.9).637c94 (88.7)
Positive9 (11.4)3 (11.1)12 (11.3)
Histology, No. (%)MFH41 (51.9)14 (51.9).886c55 (51.9)
Leiomyosarcoma16 (20.3)4 (14.8)20 (18.9)
Liposarcoma8 (10.1)2 (7.41)10 (9.43)
Synovial sarcoma7 (8.86)3 (11.1)10 (9.43)
MPNST7 (8.86)4 (14.8)11 (10.4)
Presents with metastasis, No. (%)Yes6 (7.59)3 (11.1).690c9 (8.49)
No73 (92.4)24 (88.9)97 (91.5)
Radiation therapy, No. (%)dNo16 (20.3)15 (55.6).00131 (29.2)
Preoperative1 (1.27)1 (3.70).446c2 (1.89)
Postoperative63 (79.7)11 (40.7)<.05c74 (69.8)
Chemotherapy, No. (%)No45 (56.96)16 (59.3).35161 (57.5)
Preoperative24 (30.4)7 (25.9).80831 (29.2)
Postoperative29 (36.7)7 (25.9).35436 (33.96)
Excision at another hospital, No. (%)Yes24 (34.2)4 (5.06).135c28 (26.4)
No55 (69.6)23 (85.2)78 (73.6)
Surgical type, No. (%)dLimb salvage76 (96.2)14 (51.8)<.05c90 (84.9)
Amputation3 (3.80)13 (48.1)16 (15.1)
Median follow-up, No. (IQR), mod31.6 (18.8–50.2)21.0 (13.6–32.8).040a27.2 (17.7–49.2)
Survival status, No. (%)Alive51 (64.6)19 (70.4).644c70 (66.0)
Deceased28 (35.4)8 (29.6)36 (33.96)
Median time to death (IQR), mo21.2 (12.3–36.2)17 (13.6–22.4).424a18.9 (13.2–31.1)
Local recurrence, No. (%)Yes14 (17.7)4 (14.8).99c18 (17.0)
No65 (82.3)23 (85.2)88 (83.0)
Median time to local recurrence (IQR), mo27 (15.7–45.5)24.2 (16.6–50.2).915a27 (15.–45.5)
Distant metastasis, No. (%)Yes26 (32.9)11 (40.7).490c37 (34.9)
No53 (67.1)16 (59.3)69 (65.1)
Median time to metastasis (IQR)12.4 (5.47–18.7)11.2 (6.40–19.9).947a12.2 (5.63–18.7)

Secondary Outcome: Surgical-site Infection

VariableReceiving Hydrogen Peroxide
PTotal (N=106)
Yes (n=79)No (n=27)
Infection, No. (%).466a
  Yes7 (8.86)4 (14.8)11 (10.3)
  No72 (91.1)23 (85.2)95 (89.7)
Median time to infection (IQR), d29 (14–106)23.5 (14.5–52).571b28 (14–76)
Comorbid disease, No. (%).711a
  Diabetes mellitus10 (12.6)2 (7.41)12 (11.3)
  Autoimmune disorder6 (7.59)3 (11.1)9 (8.49)
Median BMI (IQR), kg/m2c28 (24–33)25.5 (22–29).0082b27 (24–32)
Smoking, No. (%).99a
  Yes12 (15.2)4 (5.06)16 (15.1)
  No67 (84.8)23 (85.2)90 (84.9)
Median surgery time (IQR), min121 (78–205)139 (81–194).612b122.5 (80–194)
Median incision size (IQR), cmc16 (10–20)25 (12–40).015b17 (12–25)
Median EBL (IQR), mL150 (100–250)100 (100–300).795b150 (100- 250)
Transfusion, No. (%).790a
  Yes19 (24.1)5 (18.5)24 (25.4)
  No60 (75.9)22 (81.5)82 (77.4)
Wound complications, No. (%).217a
  Delayed healing5 (6.33)2 (7.41)7 (6.60)
  Flap necrosis2 (2.53)1 (3.70)3 (2.83)
History of infection, No. (%).569a
  Yes3 (3.79)0 (0)3 (2.83)
  No76 (96.2)27 (100)103 (97.2)

Predictors of Local Recurrence

VariableUnivariable PHR (95% CI)Multivariable PHR (95% CI)
10-y age increase.6161.08 (0.79–1.48)
Sex.1032.28 (0.85–6.12)
Racea1.000
Size (per 1-cm increase).3361.05 (0.95–1.15)
Margin.0333.39 (1.10–10.43).0124.48 (1.39–14.48)
Location
  Pelvic vs upper extremity.1543.33 (0.64–17.34)
  Upper leg vs upper extremity.9751.03 (0.22–4.85)
  Lower leg vs upper extremity.7470.74 (0.12–4.47)
Resection at another hospital.9331.04 (0.39–2.80)
Radiation
  Preop.1205.13 (0.65–40.18)
  Postop.8871.08 (0.36–3.31)
Chemotherapy
  Preop.8741.08 (0.40, 2.90)
  Postop.5241.36 (0.53–3.52)
Mets
  At presentation.2733.27 (0.39–27.15)
  Postop<.0019.36 (3.43–25.57)
Peroxide.7120.81 (0.27–2.48)
Amputation.5470.54 (0.07–4.07)
BMI.4320.97 (0.89–1.05)
100-mL EBL increase.0241.14 (1.02–1.28).0091.17 (1.04–1.32)
Transfusion.5571.41 (0.45–4.39)
Histology
  Leiomyosarcoma vs MFH.1672.25 (0.71–7.09)
  Liposarcoma vs MFHa1.000
  Synovial vs MFHa1.000
  MPNST vs MFH.0028.18 (2.19–30.58).0039.21 (2.11–40.16)

Factors Predictive of Surgical-site Infection

VariableUnivariable PHR (95% CI)Multivariable PHR (95% CI)
10-y age increase.0321.56 (1.04 to 2.35).0321.56 (1.04–2.35)
Sex.2390.45 (0.12 to 1.70)
Race.8270.23 (−1.84 to 2.30)
Size (per 1-cm increase).7091.02 (0.92 to 1.12)
Margin.8150.79 (0.10 to 6.11)
Location
  Pelvic vs upper extremity.8911.21 (0.08 to 19.55)
  Upper leg vs upper extremity.5192.01 (0.24 to 16.66)
  Lower leg vs upper extremity.5432.02 (0.21 to 19.42)
Radiationa
  Preoperative1.000-
  Postoperative.0480.29 (0.09 to 0.99)
Chemotherapy
  Preoperative.3580.48 (0.10 to 2.27)
  Postoperative.2780.43 (0.09 to 1.98)
Operative time.7491.00 (0.9 to 1.01)
Incision size.8841.00 (0.96 to 1.05)
Amputation.7051.34 (0.29 to 6.24)
Body mass index.4391.04 (0.94 to 1.15)
Estimated blood loss.5301.00 (0.99 to 1.00)
Transfusion.2362.24 (0.59 to 8.53)
Comorbid disease
  Diabetes mellitus.4481.83 (0.39 to 8.64)
  Autoimmune.9711.04 (0.13 to 8.37)
Previous infection.1834.08 (0.52 to 32.30)
Wound quality.3062.94 (0.37 to 23.25)
Postop wound complicationsa1.000-
Hydrogen peroxide.3080.52 (0.15 to 1.81)

10.3928/01477447-20130122-24

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