Athletic Training and Sports Health Care

Original Research 

Characteristics of Secondary School Athletic Trainers: Salary, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice

Zachary K. Winkelmann, MS, LAT, ATC; Lindsey E. Eberman, PhD, LAT, ATC

Abstract

Purpose:

To examine the perceived daily workload of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting and determine whether role strain, long hours, and work demands contribute to failed retention of athletic trainers.

Methods:

Certified athletic trainers (n = 374) currently employed in the secondary school setting completed part or all of a survey of demographic and workplace characteristics and a job satisfaction instrument.

Results:

Athletic trainers' perceived practice focused mainly on prevention, which was also dependent on staffing and budget. Overall job satisfaction was above average for respondents despite salary, workload, or teaching responsibilities. The authors could not create a predictive model in which job satisfaction was linked to extrinsic and intrinsic factors of the secondary school setting.

Conclusions:

Hiring agencies should take into account the daily practice and workload of athletic trainers when considering staffing. Further research should continue to explore cost-effective preventative medicine programs to better assist secondary school athletic trainers and examine the effects of the relationship between coworkers and supervisors on job satisfaction within athletic training.

[Athletic Training & Sports Health Care. 2017;9(3):124–132.]

Abstract

Purpose:

To examine the perceived daily workload of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting and determine whether role strain, long hours, and work demands contribute to failed retention of athletic trainers.

Methods:

Certified athletic trainers (n = 374) currently employed in the secondary school setting completed part or all of a survey of demographic and workplace characteristics and a job satisfaction instrument.

Results:

Athletic trainers' perceived practice focused mainly on prevention, which was also dependent on staffing and budget. Overall job satisfaction was above average for respondents despite salary, workload, or teaching responsibilities. The authors could not create a predictive model in which job satisfaction was linked to extrinsic and intrinsic factors of the secondary school setting.

Conclusions:

Hiring agencies should take into account the daily practice and workload of athletic trainers when considering staffing. Further research should continue to explore cost-effective preventative medicine programs to better assist secondary school athletic trainers and examine the effects of the relationship between coworkers and supervisors on job satisfaction within athletic training.

[Athletic Training & Sports Health Care. 2017;9(3):124–132.]

During the 2014–2015 school year, secondary school sport participation in the United States topped the record with 7.8 million boys and girls actively involved in individual and team sports.1 With a two-fold increase in participation since 1971,1 schools have the responsibility to maintain facilities, increase equipment availability, and ensure safe athletic participation. Athletic training is a specialized profession that is able to provide care to patients in the secondary school setting. Currently, 70% of secondary schools in the United States have some level of access to an athletic trainer for athletic health care.2,3 This may range from an athletic trainer providing care part-time to full-time patient care. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of athletic trainers to fill the demand of all secondary schools that have athletic programs, at both a part-time and full-time capacity.3

Although the number of athletic trainers in secondary schools has increased by 28% since 2005, a substantial number of patients still lack sufficient access, with only one-third of secondary schools providing full-time access to health care.3 Despite efforts, there is a gap in the access to care regardless of geography. Although most perceive the remote and rural areas to lack health care access, previous research has discovered the same issue for sports health care in large urban high schools.4

Collegiate/university athletic trainers report role strain, overload of work responsibilities, and lack of employer tolerance of parenting responsibilities, which leads to a negative perception of the athletic training career in their individual lives.5,6 Previous research determined that athletic trainers in the secondary school setting experienced a higher level of work–family conflict when they worked a higher number of hours per week as compared to a lower work–family conflict score for those athletic trainers with more control over their schedule.7 In addition, factors of low job satisfaction, long hours, and work demands have been attributed to failed retention.8

The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) completed a salary survey in 2014 that examined the pay grade based on years of experience, job setting, and location within the United States.9 The salary survey found the national average to be just over $55,000 in 2014. This average demonstrated an increase from the 2008 and 2011 salary surveys.10 When filtering the salary survey data for secondary school athletic trainers, the national average from those participants was just over $42,000.9 In addition to the salary, job satisfaction is greatly affected by workload and stress level.11 The workload experienced by athletic trainers in the secondary school setting from inadequate staffing and inflexible scheduling contributes to the intention to leave the profession from burnout.12 Previous research has called for an analysis of the day-to-day workload of secondary school athletic trainers to better understand the characteristics of the individuals providing services to this population.13

The objective of this study was to explore work-place characteristics of secondary school athletic trainers, including the daily self-reported perceived athletic trainer-specific responsibilities and practice, based on the role delineation study. In addition, we compared these characteristics of athletic trainers in secondary schools to job satisfaction. We hypothesized that the salary of athletic trainers would reflect the current trend of the profession and average approximately $40,000 for athletic trainers with more than 2 years of experience in the secondary school setting. In addition, we hypothesized perceived daily practice would be higher for orthopedic evaluation and organizational administration. Finally, we hypothesized that secondary school athletic trainers with low job compensation, teaching responsibilities, and more than 60 hours of perceived workload per week would have less job satisfaction.

Methods

The study was approved by the Indiana State University Institutional Review Board. The use of social media sites related to athletic trainers on Facebook and Twitter were used for recruitment. The participants were recruited from four Facebook posts and 60 tweets from an athletic training Twitter account for 1 month. This strategy was employed successfully in previous health care research,14,15 and although this research leaned toward a younger sample of respondents, this population is reasonably targeted because it is most likely to leave the profession.8 In addition, previous research on secondary school practice characteristics only targeted NATA members.13 With 28.4% (14,196 of 49,994) of certified athletic trainers not engaged as members of the NATA,16 we believe social media recruitment allows for a sample that includes both members and nonmembers. Although atypical, the recruitment methods we chose allowed for responses from more than 14,000 certified athletic trainers who do not belong to the NATA. Nonresponders are an issue with survey research in general. Moreover, a response rate cannot be calculated because of recruitment through social media.17

We used a cross-sectional study design. Data were collected through a web-based descriptive survey via Qualtrics software (Qualtrics, Inc., Provo, UT). After electronically signing the informed consent, participants completed the survey, which included demographic information about the participants, the secondary school where they currently practiced, and workplace characteristics. Workplace characteristics in the web-based survey included the number of athletic trainers employed in the participant's current job setting, self-reported salary, athletic training budget, and day-to-day perceived workload in six categories: injury/illness prevention and wellness, clinical evaluation–orthopedic, clinical evaluation–general medical, immediate and emergency care, treatment and rehabilitation, and organizational and professional health and well-being. These categories were developed from the sixth edition of the Role Delineation Study for athletic trainers.18

Respondents were asked to indicate what percentage of their day-to-day clinical practice was spent performing tasks related to the six categories that would total 100% of their time practicing in the secondary school. Although the domains of athletic training are inclusive of duties, we separated clinical evaluation and diagnosis into two categories: orthopedic and general medical. This category was added to accurately reflect the athletic trainer's daily workload because previous research noted that most athletic trainers were spending their clinical practice performing on-site evaluations.13 The research team felt it was important to identify clinical evaluations through orthopedic and general medical because the time to complete associated tasks may vary.

For the measures of salary and overall job satisfaction, participants completed the Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement instrument constructed through analysis of the literature by the Society of Human Resources.19 Following the literature review, a pool of questions was validated by the two panels of experts.19 The final instrument consisted of more than 100 items, in which 26 items that defined the construct of job satisfaction were used for this study.19 Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). The instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency among our respondents (Cronbach's α = 0.922). We also calculated a composite job satisfaction score through summing the 26 items of the instrument.

Partial data were used for all comparisons. It is common to have missing data in surveys. We had missing data in this study, but the missing data were not at random. This means that participants began the survey, but did not complete all items (see completion rate in the Results section). This type of missing data is the most difficult to manage with a missing data technique (eg, listwise/pairwise deletion, multiple imputation, maximum likelihood methods, or Bayesian methods) to eliminate bias.20 Even when missing data techniques are used, some bias is present within the data.20 We elected to use partial data analyses because this is consistent with other previous research of this kind.3,13

The independent variables for this study included the categories of daily self-reported, perceived daily practice of job-specific tasks, and responsibilities. The dependent variables included the descriptive factors of workplace characteristics, such as years of experience, salary, hours worked per week, teaching responsibilities, degree level, and employer type. We conducted a descriptive analysis for characteristics of the day-to-day workings of a secondary school athletic trainer. In addition, we performed nonparamet-ric one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis) and t tests (Mann–Whitney U) for comparative measures on salary, perceived daily practice, and job satisfaction to evaluate the differences between individual groups. We completed a post-hoc analysis of the data comparing the dependent variables (years of experience, salary, hours worked per week, teaching responsibilities, degree level, and employer type) to their categories of daily practice. Finally, multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the predictive relationship of hours worked per week and salary on overall job satisfaction. Partial data were used for all comparisons.

Results

A total of 374 participants started the survey, with 68% (256 of 374) completing the survey in its entirety. Participants were predominantly women (201 of 340, 59.1%; men: 139 of 340, 40.9%) and white (317 of 344, 92.2%). The majority of respondents earned a master's degree (205 of 338, 60.7%; bachelor's degree: 133 of 338, 39.3%) and did not have any teaching responsibilities (247 of 333, 74.2%). Participants were early to mid-career (age: 31.9 ± 8.3 years; years of experience: 9.3 ± 7.9 years), and worked an average work week (45.8 ± 18.0 hours per week). A total of 51.5% (151 of 293) worked in suburban locations and 62% (181 of 292) were employed at a public secondary school full-time with an average staff of 1.4 ± 0.6 athletic trainers. The hiring agency of the respondents was predominantly from the secondary school or school district itself (36.2%, 106 of 293). Respondents reported a minimal budget ($0 to $5,000: 176 of 289; 60.9%) for their clinical practice.

Salary

We identified a significant difference (chi-square test = 20.580, df = 1, P < .001) in salary between those with a bachelor's degree ($39,263 ± $17,121) and those with a master's degree ($48,271 ± $17,027). We identified a significant difference (chi-square test = 35.615, df = 1, P < .001) in salary between those with ($54,458 ± $19,218) and without ($41,476 ± $15,642) teaching responsibilities. We identified a significant difference (chi-square test = 67.198, df = 5, P < .001) in salary between hiring agencies. Mann–Whitney post-hoc analyses suggest that those hired by a hospital but completely deployed at the respective secondary schools ($39,206 ± $1,351) were paid substantially less (Mann–Whitney U test = 1,325.00, Z = −6.44, P < .001) than those hired by a secondary school or the school district directly ($55,005 ± $1,665). We identified significant differences (chi-square test = 130.231, df = 4, P < .001) between years of experience and salary. Throughout their career, participants demonstrated significantly different salary progression from 0 to 2 years ($27,481 ± $1,454), 3 to 8 years ($41,287 ± $1,015), 9 to 14 years ($50,115 ± $1,711), 15 to 20 years ($59,946 ± $3,661), and more than 20 years of experience ($60,727 ± $2,979), with no significant increases in salary between 15 to 20 years and more than 20 years of experience.

Perceived Daily Practice

In general, the perceived percentage of day-to-day workload of secondary school athletic trainers consisted of 26.8% ± 15.6% injury/illness prevention and wellness, 23.9% ± 14.8% treatment and rehabilitation, 18.6% ± 10.1% clinical evaluation–orthopedic, 14.5% ± 11.5% organization and professional health and well-being, 7.2% ± 5.3% clinical evaluation–general medical, and 6.8% ± 9.2% immediate and emergency care. We identified a main effect for budget and perceived time spent on domains of daily practice for injury/illness prevention and wellness (chi-square test = 17.965, df = 5, P = .003) and treatment and rehabilitation (chi-square test = 17.169, df = 5, P = .004). Athletic trainers with smaller to moderate budgets tend to spend more time on injury/illness prevention and wellness and less time on treatment and rehabilitation compared to athletic trainers with larger budgets. Post-hoc analyses are described in detail in Table 1.


Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Secondary School AT Budget

Table 1:

Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Secondary School AT Budget

We did not identify main effects for any of the other domains including clinical evaluation–orthopedic (chi-square test = 5.668, df = 5, P = .340), clinical evaluation–general medical (chi-square test = 5.349, df = 5, P = .375), immediate and emergency care (chi-square test = 7.434, df = 5, P = .190), and organization and professional health and well-being (chi-square test = 10.477, df = 5, P = .063). We identified a main effect for the number of athletic trainers at the secondary school on domains of daily practice, particularly for injury/illness prevention and wellness (chi-square test = 20.869, df = 3, P = .000) and treatment and rehabilitation (chi-square test = 24.166, df = 3, P = .000). Secondary schools that employ one athletic trainer reported more day-to-day workload on injury/illness prevention compared to secondary schools with two athletic trainers (Table 2). In addition, secondary schools with two athletic trainers spent more time on treatment/rehabilitation compared to those with one athletic trainer (Table 2). We did not identify main effects for any of the other domains, including clinical evaluation–orthopedic (chi-square test = 0.144, df = 3, P = .986), clinical evaluation–general medical (chi-square test = 2.866, df = 3, P = .413), immediate and emergency care (chi-square test = 4.653, df = 3, P = .199), and organization and professional health and well-being (chi-square test = 4.592, df = 3, P = .204).


Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Number of ATs at Secondary School

Table 2:

Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Number of ATs at Secondary School

Job Satisfaction

We did not identify any significant difference in overall job satisfaction between those with (n = 61; satisfaction: 3.7 ± 0.5) and without (n = 193; satisfaction: 3.7 ± 0.6) teaching responsibilities (chi-square test = 0.000, df = 2, P = .999), categories of hours worked per week (chi-square test = 7.893, df = 5, P = .162) (Table 3), and categories of salary (chi-square test = 5.907, df = 3, P = .116) (Table 4). Overall, individual factors of job satisfaction determined that athletic trainers in the secondary school setting had above average satisfaction with autonomy and independence (mean: 4.4 ± 0.7) (Table 5) but were dissatisfied with career advancement (mean: 2.9 ± 1.1) (Table 5). We were unable to develop a predictive model for job satisfaction (F(2, 239) = 2.445, P = .09, R2 = 0.02), whereby hours worked per week and salary accounted for only 2% of the variance in job satisfaction.


Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Hours Worked Per Week

Table 3:

Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Hours Worked Per Week


Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Salary

Table 4:

Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Salary


Mean Scores for the Respondents on the Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement Tool

Table 5:

Mean Scores for the Respondents on the Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement Tool

Discussion

The number of certified athletic trainers totaled 49,994 in January 2016,16 71.6% of whom were members of the NATA.16 The respondents of this survey were much younger (age: 31.9 ± 8.3 years) than the national average reported in the 2014 salary survey and previous research on secondary school athletic trainers.9,13 Our study had an increased response from female athletic trainers compared to previous research from McLeod et al.13 that reported 51% of the respondents in the secondary school were men. Although this aligns with the paradigm shift that embraces diversity within the profession in terms of gender, these statistics may not be reflective of the field of athletic training as a whole. Unfortunately, we do not see the same inclusion of other demographic factors such as ethnicity; more than 92% (317 of 342) of our respondents indicated they were white. McLeod et al.13 did not report ethnicity; therefore, we must rely on national averages from NATA membership, in which 7,300 of the 8,768 (83.3%) athletic trainers in the secondary setting identify as white.13,16

We had similar results for teaching responsibilities. Previous research in the secondary school setting suggests that 22.8% of respondents report some teaching responsibilities.13 In our study, 25.8% of respondents reported that they have some teaching responsibilities. When examining salary, we noted that our hypothesis of $40,000 compensation for a person with more than 2 years of experience is true. Our results identified that individuals with 3 or more years of experience averaged a salary of $41,000, whereas a certified athletic trainer with more than 20 years of experience earned just over $60,000. Although compensation did not have an impact on overall job satisfaction in our study, respondents did indicate dissatisfaction with career development and advancement. These factors continue to raise concerns for retention and long-term earnings of athletic trainers in this setting.

Previous researchers identified that 60% of secondary school athletic trainers have a budget of $6,000 or less, with 33.7% of these respondents reporting a budget of less than $2,000.13 This is similar to our findings because the majority of our respondents (60.9%) had a budget of less than $5,000. A small budget can negatively affect the job responsibilities of athletic trainers, which was recently demonstrated in a subpopulation of secondary schools in South Carolina.21 This study identified that a small budget directly affected the medical care provided by athletic trainers.21 Although we agree that continued efforts to improve the sports medicine budget are necessary, the results of our study demonstrate that athletic trainers with either no budget or a budget of less than $2,500 spend most of their perceived daily practice on prevention. Preventative medicine is a subset of skills that athletic trainers have that may not require supplies, thereby creating the potential for interprofessional collaboration with public health professionals to aid in mitigating injuries and illnesses in secondary school sports.

Although we would emphasize this is not a fix for the issue of the lack of financial support from hiring agencies to their patients, we must understand that changing the culture of the hiring agency and the secondary school is difficult. Previous research found that secondary school hiring agents (typically the school principal or athletic director) may not understand the need for medical care related to the school's athletic teams, lack an awareness of the roles and responsibilities that are covered by an athletic trainer, and view the athletic coach as an appropriate provider of medical services.2 This information is important to understand for athletic trainers hoping to change the culture of the hiring agency. Although the hiring agents may deem medical services from an athletic coach as appropriate, athletic trainers should seek to educate and share the vital role of preventative medicine because previous research has identified risk factors for youth athletes and the need of injury prevention programs for this population.22 According to our study, athletic trainers who are the sole medical provider at the secondary school and have a minimal budget will use their daily workload to focus on injury/illness prevention and wellness efforts. Athletic trainers should seek to advocate for themselves through proper knowledge and training sessions with hiring agents for these individuals to better understand the unique skill set that athletic trainers can provide to the secondary school athletes. We suggest further research be conducted to explore the daily clinical practice and workload related to the specific domain of prevention measures and wellness promotion strategies for athletes in secondary schools.

Despite the shortcomings (eg, low budget and minimal personnel) identified in this setting, athletic trainers are satisfied with their jobs. Health care professions such as nursing and physician practice state that contributing factors of poor job satisfaction include low wages and long work hours.11,23,24 Unlike other health care professions, individuals who have selected a career path as a physician assistant have experienced high job satisfaction, which is linked to low attrition rates and competitive wages.25 Although both intrinsic and extrinsic factors will influence job satisfaction, long work hours and undesirable pay are common areas of concern.8 Substantial research identified life–work balance, work–family conflict, job satisfaction, and attitudes toward athletic training careers in the collegiate setting as important factors for retention.26–31 When considering athletic training practice settings, many athletic trainers perceive the collegiate setting as the top tier of athletic training.31 Terranova and Henning31 found that athletic trainers in the collegiate setting do not have higher job satisfaction, and suggested that employers should compensate for the long hours with better pay. These findings contradict our own in that we did not find a connection between these variables in the secondary school setting. This does not suggest that we should stop advocating for fair wages, but does suggest that there is not a direct, linear relationship between satisfaction and compensation. Previous research also noted that 48.3% of secondary school athletic trainers work 30 hours or less per week,13 whereas our study found this workload equated to 24.8% (63 of 254) of secondary school athletic trainers. Consequently, we saw that 43.3% (110 of 254) of the secondary school athletic trainers from our study practiced for more than 45 hours per week. This finding may contribute to the increased presence of full-time athletic trainers in both public and private secondary schools rather than athletic trainers at event coverage only.2,3 Despite the overload, role tension, and burnout that long hours can create, the respondents were satisfied with their job, suggesting that athletic trainers should examine their personal goals and desires to determine which setting would be most beneficial for long-term career satisfaction.26 In contrast to our hypothesis that teaching responsibilities, extensive work weeks, and low compensation negatively affect job satisfaction, our results found that athletic trainers with teaching responsibilities actually noted higher job satisfaction (3.7 of 5) on the instrument. We believe this can be related back to choosing a secondary school job description that best aligns with personality and professional goals.26

According to a 2015 survey, 86% of employees in the United States across varied job settings are satisifed.32 We also identified general satisfaction among our sample of athletic trainers, with an overall job satisfaction rating on the Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement instrument of 3.7 ± 0.6. On specific items of career advancement and career development opportunities, mean satisfaction scores were lower at 2.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 1.0, respectively. Because most of the respondents were hired directly through the school or school system, it is possible there is a lack of professional hierarchy to “climb” and advance professionally. We suggest that athletic trainers seeking a career in the secondary school setting be aware of this limitation.

In contrast, secondary school athletic trainers state they are most satisfied with autonomy and independence, with a rating of 4.4 ± 0.7 of 5. Previous research found that stimulating and interesting jobs lead to increased job satisfaction. On the national survey of satisfaction, 68% of employees stated that they are most satisfied with the work itself because it is interesting, challenging, and exciting.31,32 The autonomy and independence of the secondary school setting from a staffing perspective may create a stimulating and challenging work environment that promotes satisfaction. This finding is in contrast to previous literature that found collegiate athletic trainers have a lower job satisfaction when they lack support and an increased role strain.31 Although 66% of our survey respondents practiced as the sole athletic trainer in the secondary school, they reported satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.7 of 5) with their relationships with coworkers. This relationship with coworkers, whether it be with the physician, coaches, administrators or teachers in the secondary school, promotes engagement in the workplace.32 In addition to coworker relationships, athletic trainers' relationship with their immediate supervisor was positive (4.0 ± 0.9 of 5), which promotes overall job satisfaction. As a result, we determined that a collegiate workplace culture positively influences job satisfaction. This may promote retention efforts because previous findings stated athletic trainers left the profession due to lack of administrative support.8

Finally, we explored the subgroup of compensation on salary. Respondents stated that they were satisfied (3.1 ± 1.1) but there is room for improvement. Across the nation, employees state compensation accounts for 60% of their job satisfaction despite the age group.32 We see that compensation continues to be a concern for Millennials, Generation X, Baby Boomers, and veterans.32 Unfortunately, we were not able to create a predictive model for salary on job satisfaction. This may be due to secondary school athletic trainers also being satisfied (3.1 ± 1.3) with paid training programs that their employer either facilitates or pays for, which could include events such as conferences and continuing education units.

Further research should continue to explore cost-effective preventative medicine programs to better assist secondary school athletic trainers and examine the effects of the relationship between coworkers and supervisors on job satisfaction within athletic training.

Implications for Clinical Practice

This information will help the profession better understand the day-to-day workload of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting. In return, this may improve the quality of life for athletic trainers in this setting regarding roles and responsibilities and directly influence the quality of care received by the patient if budgets were increased and personnel were added. The perceived percentage of daily practice is mainly filled with prevention and rehabilitation in the secondary school setting, but varies depending on the available staffing and budget of the secondary school. In addition, hiring agencies should take into account the daily practice and workload of athletic trainers when considering staffing. As we continue to seek to provide rehabilitative medicine to the secondary school setting, there must be an increase in staffing for appropriate medical care.3 Athletic trainers in the secondary setting experience above average job satisfaction that was not affected by salary, hours worked per week, or other teaching responsibilities. The secondary school setting is unique and allows for autonomy and independence in the workplace, which we must continue to embrace while also providing efforts to maximize the potential of these athletic trainers through career opportunities and focused continuing education seminars.

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Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Secondary School AT Budget

Budget ($)IIPWTRCOCGMIECOPH
No budget (n = 29)26.4% ± 15.8%19.4% ± 12.4%21.5% ± 11.5%8.0% ± 6.1%7.7% ± 11.1%13.4% ± 11.5%
1 to 2,500 (n = 69)30.3% ± 15.3%a,b23.8% ± 16.2%18.1% ± 10.7%6.4% ± 4.8%7.0% ± 10.7%13.0% ± 12.7%
2,500 to 5,000 (n = 62)30.4% ± 16.8%c,d23.2% ± 14.3%18.9% ± 7.7%6.9% ± 5.4%5.9% ± 9.9%13.1% ± 10.0%
5,000 to 10,000 (n = 53)22.7% ± 13.5%27.2% ± 15.6%e,g18.6% ± 10.4%7.2% ± 5.1%5.8% ± 4.8%14.9% ± 10.1%
10,000 to 15,000 (n = 20)19.6% ± 13.7%30.1% ± 14.2%f,h,i,j16.2% ± 10.9%7.8% ± 5.9%6.9% ± 6.2%19.5% ± 12.5%
> 15,000 (n = 27)24.3% ± 12.2%17.8% ± 9.7%20.7% ± 10.6%8.5% ± 4.6%9.4% ± 10.3%14.4% ± 8.2%

Perceived Percentage of Daily Practice Per AT Domain Based on Number of ATs at Secondary School

No. of ATsIIPWTRCOCGMIECOPH
1 (n = 192)30.3% ± 15.9%a21.57% ± 14.50%18.6% ± 8.6%7.0% ± 5.4%7.1% ± 9.7%13.4% ± 10.9%
2 (n = 84)20.9% ± 13.2%29.1% ± 13.7%b19.6% ± 12.4%7.6% ± 5.2%5.2% ± 4.9%16.3% ± 11.4%
3 (n = 12)25.0% ± 11.8%31.5% ± 17.3%c17.8% ± 12.1%8.7% ± 5.2%4.3% ± 3.7%12.7% ± 6.2%
> 3 (n = 3)21.67% ± 10.40%18.3% ± 16.1%18.3% ± 10.4%6.7% ± 5.8%25.0% ± 30.4%10.0% ± 8.7%

Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Hours Worked Per Week

Hours Worked Per WeekResponsesOverall Job SatisfactionaMean (hrs)
10 to 15n = 43.4 ± 0.412.3 ± 2.6
16 to 30n = 593.7 ± 0.625.3 ± 4.0
31 to 45n = 813.6 ± 0.640.6 ± 3.7
46 to 60n = 683.7 ± 0.654.0 ± 4.5
61 to 75n = 313.6 ± 0.468.6 ± 4.2
> 75n = 114.1 ± 0.691.6 ± 15.7

Overall Job Satisfaction Compared to Categories of Salary

SalaryResponsesOverall Job SatisfactionaMean
$10,000 to $20,000n = 233.7 ± 0.5$14,457 ± $3,846
$21,000 to $40,000n = 1233.6 ± 0.6$34,109 ± $4,648
$41,000 to $60,000n = 1183.7 ± 0.5$48,564 ± $5,654
$61,000 to $108,000n = 543.9 ± 0.6$72,259 ± $10,912

Mean Scores for the Respondents on the Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement Tool

Instrument ItemScorea
Autonomy and independence4.4 ± 0.7
Feeling safe in the work environment4.3 ± 0.7
Relationship with coworkers4.2 ± 0.7
Opportunities to use skills/abilities4.1 ± 0.9
The work itself4.1 ± 0.8
Meaningfulness of job4.1 ± 0.8
Relationship with immediate supervisor4.0 ± 0.9
Job security4.0 ± 0.9
Overall culture3.9 ± 0.7
Organization's commitment to a diverse and inclusive workplace3.8 ± 0.9
Organization's financial stability3.8 ± 0.9
Variety of work3.8 ± 0.9
Contribution of work to organization's goals3.8 ± 0.9
Benefits3.7 ± 1.1
Networking3.7 ± 1.0
Communication between employees and management3.6 ± 1.1
Organization's commitment to professional development3.6 ± 1.0
Organization's commitment to social responsibility3.6 ± 0.9
Administration's recognition of employee job performance3.4 ± 1.2
Flexibility to balance life and work issues3.4 ± 1.1
Job-specific training3.4 ± 0.9
Career development opportunities3.3 ± 1.0
Organization's commitment to a “green” workplace3.2 ± 0.8
Paid training and tuition reimbursement programs3.1 ± 1.3
Compensation/pay3.1 ± 1.1
Career advancement2.9 ± 1.1
Overall job satisfaction3.7 ± 0.6
Authors

From Indiana State University, Terra Haute, Indiana.

The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.

Correspondence: Zachary K. Winkelmann, MS, LAT, ATC, Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation, 567 North 5th Street, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809. E-mail: zwinkelmann@sycamores.indstate.edu

Received: February 15, 2016
Accepted: November 30, 2016
Posted Online: March 07, 2017

10.3928/19425864-20170210-01

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