Systematic Review 

Eversion Force Sense Characteristics in Individuals with Functional Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review

Cynthia J. Wright, MEd, ATC, LAT; Brent L. Arnold, PhD, ATC, FNATA

Abstract

This article aims to determine whether there are eversion force sense deficits in individuals with functional ankle instability. Database searches resulted in 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria of testing ankle eversion force sense in participants with functional ankle instability. For each study, effect sizes were calculated separately for ipsilateral and contralateral reference ankles, and for each possible outcome variable: absolute error, constant error, and variable error. For ipsilateral variable error, 8 of 9 measures favored participants with functional ankle instability (effect size range= 0.217 to 0.706); however, only 3 confidence intervals did not cross zero. All 3 measures of ipsilateral constant error favored the uninjured group (effect size range = −0.532 to −0.254), although all confidence intervals crossed zero. There were no consistent trends for ipsilateral absolute error or for any contralateral error measure. Individuals with functional ankle instability may have different ipsilateral eversion force sense characteristics than uninjured individuals.

Authors

The authors are from the Department of Health & Human Performance, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va.

The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.

Address correspondence to Cynthia J. Wright, MEd, ATC, LAT, Department of Health & Human Performance, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1015 W Main Street, Room 1037, Richmond, VA 23284-2020; e-mail: wrightcj@vcu.edu

10.3928/19425864-20100630-07

This article aims to determine whether there are eversion force sense deficits in individuals with functional ankle instability. Database searches resulted in 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria of testing ankle eversion force sense in participants with functional ankle instability. For each study, effect sizes were calculated separately for ipsilateral and contralateral reference ankles, and for each possible outcome variable: absolute error, constant error, and variable error. For ipsilateral variable error, 8 of 9 measures favored participants with functional ankle instability (effect size range= 0.217 to 0.706); however, only 3 confidence intervals did not cross zero. All 3 measures of ipsilateral constant error favored the uninjured group (effect size range = −0.532 to −0.254), although all confidence intervals crossed zero. There were no consistent trends for ipsilateral absolute error or for any contralateral error measure. Individuals with functional ankle instability may have different ipsilateral eversion force sense characteristics than uninjured individuals.

The authors are from the Department of Health & Human Performance, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va.

The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.

Address correspondence to Cynthia J. Wright, MEd, ATC, LAT, Department of Health & Human Performance, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1015 W Main Street, Room 1037, Richmond, VA 23284-2020; e-mail: wrightcj@vcu.edu

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