Refractive Outcome Graphs/Visual Acuity Conversion 

Outcomes for any clinical series of refractive surgery cases must include a graphic presentation of outcomes as set out in the Journal of Refractive Surgery.1-5 Authors must include linear regression analysis with the regression equation, trend line, and coefficient of determination (r2), which should be shown on the attempted vs achieved spherical equivalent refraction scatter plot.

The Standard Graphs can be plotted using standard spreadsheet software, such as Microsoft Excel (, or dedicated software packages available for analyzing refractive surgery outcomes, such as Datagraph-med (, Outcomes Analysis Software (, and SurgiVision® DataLink ( (The Journal of Refractive Surgery provides no specific endorsement of the above listed software packages.)

Standard Graphs for Corneal Refractive Surgery


Standard Graphs for Intraocular Lens-Based Refractive Surgery


  1. Waring GO III, Reinstein DZ, Dupps WJ, Kohnen T, Mamalis N, Rosen ES, Koch DD, Obstbaum SA, Stulting RD. Standardized graphs and terms for refractive surgery results. J Refract Surg. 2011;27(1):7-9. Erratum in J Refract Surg. 2011;27(2):88.
  2. Reinstein DZ, Waring GO III. Graphic reporting of outcomes of refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2009;5(11):975-978.
  3. Waring GO III. Standard graphs for reporting refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2000;16(4):459-466. Erratum in J Refract Surg. 2001;17(1):following table of contents.
  4. Reinstein DZ, Archer TJ, Randleman JB. JRS standards for reporting astigmatism outcomes of refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2014;30(10):654-659. Erratum in: J Refract Surg. 2015;31(2):129.
  5. Reinstein DZ, Archer TJ, Srinivasan S, Mamalis N, Kohnen T, Dupps WJ Jr, Randleman JB. Standard for reporting refractive outcomes of intraocular lens-based refractive surgery. J Refract Surg. 2017;33(4):218-222.

Visual Acuity

Conversion Chart (pdf format)
Terms and Abbreviations (pdf format)