||Carlson, J. S. (2015a). Factors influencing retention among part-time clinical nursing faculty. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(1), 42–45. doi:10.5480/13-1231
||Examine factors impacting retention of full-time nursing faculty; identify key job characteristics that influence the willingness of part-time faculty to continue, or not continue, serving as clinical faculty for a program.
Researcher-developed web-based survey. Validity and reliability of instrument not reported. Quantitative study.
National sample using convenience sampling of part-time clinical nurse faculty teaching in BSN programs throughout the U.S. (n = 553)
||Identify the most important factor that would cause part-time faculty to want to continue working for, or not continue working for, this school?
||Reasons to stay at current school: Strong affinity for teaching, pay and benefits, feeling respected and valued, having positive regard for school employees, job flexibility, and having an increased chance of securing a full-time job. Reasons for not wanting to stay: Life and family conflicts including their issues with primary job, pay disparity between practice and teaching, increased workload, changing clinical schedules or time slots, lack of support and respect, disorganized and lack of teamwork.
||Carlson, J. S. (2015b). Orientation, evaluation, and integration of part-time nursing faculty. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 12(1), 83-90. doi:10.1515/ijnes-2015-0036
||Summarize orientation practices existing within prelicensure nursing programs; focusing on student evaluation and integration of part-time clinical nursing faculty into the university/college.
Cross sectional exploratory study design utilizing a researcher designed-web based survey questionnaire; validity and reliability not reported. Quantitative Study.
Convenience sample (n=533) of US part-time clinical nursing faculty members teaching in BSN programs.
||Part-time clinical faculty
Orientation, evaluation, and integration of part-time clinical faculty.
||Part-time faculty reported that 90% received an orientation; half were less than 2 hours. The types of orientations were formal (54%) and informal (55%). Materials received varied and most felt that orientation provided was helpful.
||Dunker, K. S., & Manning, K. (2018). Live continuing education program for adjunct clinical nursing faculty. Nursing Education Perspectives, 39(1), 16–18. doi:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000248
||Evaluate a mentoring program for adjunct clinical faculty.
Quantitative study. Pilot study of a previous online continuing education program that utilized as a live program.
Convenience sample (n=84) faculty members from 3 Massachusetts nursing programs.
||An online continuing education program for adjunct clinical faculty was transformed into a Live Continuing Education Program for Adjunct Clinical Nursing Faculty (LCEP-ACNF). Evaluations positive; live format was well received. Peer discussions and breakout session after video vignettes were very beneficial and respondents requested more time for these.
||Flood, L. S., & Robinia, K. (2014). Bridging the gap: Strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning. Nurse Education in Practice, 14, 329–332.
||Strategies to bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Strategies that integrate part time faculty into courses and support for these faculty. Integrating technology and strategies for socialization are discussed.
||Level VII – Expert opinion
||Provide clinical faculty with syllabus, textbooks, student management tools and invitations to attend class lecture. NCLEX review questions and applying to clinical can also help bridge the gap. Invest in clinical course coordinator development to improve communication between faculty. Include clinical faculty in departmental meetings, lectures and faculty development opportunities to promote socialization.
||Fura, L. A., & Symanski, M. E. (2014). An online approach to orienting clinical nursing faculty in baccalaureate nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35(5), 324–326. doi:10.5480/12-868.1
||Describes the design and evaluation of the pilot study to provide online support for adjunct clinical faculty.
Pilot study. Quantitative Study.
17 adjunct clinical instructors volunteered to participate in the pretest phase; nine were new to clinical teaching, eight were MSN prepared and the others held BSN degrees.
||Pre and post-test were completed by participants. Data collected from Blackboard™; all participants accessed the site at least once. The post-test indicated that the online information was beneficial for some.
||Gies, M. L. (2013). Mentoring clinical adjunct nursing faculty. International Journal for Human Caring, 17(3), 35–40. doi:10.1080/00098650209604928
||Explore the benefits and components of mentoring programs
Article does not describe the process used for review of the literature. Review of the literature on mentoring of clinical adjunct faculty.
||Benefits of strong mentoring programs include: A consistent pool of adjunct faculty; mentors gain job satisfaction when mentees are successful; and mentoring improves recruitment, retention, teaching effectiveness, and satisfaction of new hired faculty. Orientation, support, and follow up were identified as themes.
||Hall, N., & Chichester, M. (2014). How to succeed as an adjunct clinical nurse instructor. Nursing for Women's Health, 18(4), 341–344. doi:10.1111/1751-486X.12139
||To discuss how adjunct clinical faculty who stay proactive in their own clinical practice can teach safe care and build relationships with staff.
||Level VII – Expert opinion
||Orientation and training programs prepare new adjunct faculty. Without regular interaction in the clinical setting and on clinical units, instructors become disconnected. To succeed as nursing faculty, respect and trust should be earned. Self-awareness is needed for faculty to continue to learn and grow.
||Hinderer, K. A., Jarosinski, J. M., Seldomridge, L. A., & Reid, T. P. (2016). From expert clinician to nurse educator. Outcomes of a faculty academy initiative. Nurse Educator, 41(4), 194–198. doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000243
||The Eastern Shore Faculty Academy and Mentorship Initiative was developed to help transition novice nurses into part-time clinical faculty. Explores program development and use.
32 people completed the program over a 3-year period.
||The ESFAMI was a collaboration between 3 nursing programs. Goal was to take expert clinicians and develop them into part-time clinical faculty. The academy had three phases: half-day face-to face introduction, then an 8-hour module was completed over 2 weeks, then a final 4-hour session.
||Koharchik, L. (2014). Delineating the role of the part-time clinical nurse instructor. American Journal of Nursing, 114(5), 65–67.doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000446781.07147.3e
||Discusses the role of the part-time clinical nurse instructor.
||Level VII – Expert opinion
||Role includes teaching students how to plan care in the health care setting. Drawback with the role include lack of adequate compensation and stability. Also, varied work locations, institutional marginalization, inadequate orientations, and liability issues related to patient load.
||Koharchik, L., & Jakub, K. (2014). Starting a job as adjunct clinical instructor. American Journal of Nursing, 114(8), 57-60.
||Preparing for the role of clinical faculty and getting started in the clinical setting with students.
||Level VII – Expert opinion
||Attendance at orientation is highly recommended, if not mandatory. Include information about policies and procedures, the clinical calendar, etc. New faculty need to learn about the program, the curriculum and what students have accomplished in prior courses.
||Koharchik, L. (2017). Supporting adjunct clinical faculty. American Journal of Nursing, 117(9), 58–62. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000524551.58567.c6
||Discussion of the strategies used to promote learning and enhance feelings of belonging among adjunct clinical faculty.
||Level VII – Expert opinion
||Adjunct faculty are hired to teach based on credit hours or hourly basis and do not receive benefits. They often feel isolated from peers and in many cases perceive their role to be temporary. Orientation is essential to novice faculty.
||Kring, D. L., Ramseur, N., & Parnell, E. (2013). How effective are hospital adjunct clinical instructors? Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(1), 34–36.
||To determine if hospital adjunct clinical instructors are as effective as faculty employed by schools of nursing.
Descriptive Study. Quantitative Study.
Convenience sample of 49 new graduate nurses in North Carolina.
||Comparison of effectiveness between hospital adjunct clinical instructors and faculty employed by schools of nursing.
||Surveys were sent to new graduate nurses. Adjunct instructors and school faculty scores indicated a high level of effectiveness. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant.
||Meyer, J. R. (2017). Administering perspectives of advantages and challenges of employing part-time faculty in nursing education programs: Two sides of the same coin. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38(2), 80–84.doi:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000121
||Explores perspectives of administrators regarding advantages and challenges of employing part-time nurse faculty in schools of nursing in the United States.
Descriptive study. Qualitative study.
581 Deans and Directors of US Nursing Programs.
||Advantages and challenges of PTNF perceived by administrators
||Five themes emerged from this study: primary role, diversity of educational approaches, effects on full-time faculty role, economic impact, and contracted educator role.
||Reid, T. P., Hinderer, K. A., Jarosinski, J. M., Mister, B. J., & Seldomridge, L. A. (2013). Expert clinician to clinical teacher: Developing a faculty academy and mentoring initiative. Nurse Education in Practice, 13, 288–293.
||Describes a collaborative project to prepare experienced nurse clinicians as part time clinical faculty.
Three nursing programs on the Eastern Shore of Maryland developed “The Eastern Shore Faculty Academy and Mentorship Initiative (ES-FAMI).”
||ES-FAMI is a 30-hour hybrid program that include face-to-face, simulation and online components. Each participant agrees to teach at least one clinical section per year for one of the partnering schools for a minimum of 2 years. Topics include: Clinical teaching, creating a positive learning environment, making patient assignments, and managing multiple roles.
||Roberts, K. K., Chrisman, S. K., & Flowers, C. (2013). The perceived needs of nurse clinicians as they move into an adjunct clinical faculty role. Journal of Professional Nursing, 29(5), 295–301.
||Purpose was to determine how adjunct clinical faculty describe their role and the needs they have related to actualizing that role.
Naturalistic inquiry methodology. Qualitative study.
21 adjunct clinical faculty were interviewed.
||Four themes: orientation, role, support, and connection. Recommends: Intentionally guiding transition into the role; support this transition with a mentor, who identifies educational skills needed.
Role conflict was a factor; faculty needed to feel supported and have access to course materials. Institutional support, work site, and staff support was important, as was a sense of connection to the program.
||Roberts, S. J., & Glod, C. (2013). Faculty roles: Dilemmas for the future of nursing education. Nursing Forum, 48(2), 99–105.doi:10.1111/nuf.12018
||Description of the evolution of nursing education, from an occupation model to a professional, research-based model situated in universities and colleges. However, the rules of universities are more suited for disciplines that do not have a clinical emphasis.
Literature Review and analysis. The article has no description of how the review was conducted.
||Four dilemmas were identified: 1. All nursing faculty do not have the same expectations for roles. 2. Clinical faculty do not have job security or same rights as tenured faculty. 3. There is a difference in role expectations between clinical practice setting and academia, 4. PhD- prepared faculty have increasingly observed challenges in the academic setting, especially to obtaining tenure and promotion.
||Santisteban, L., & Egues, A. L. (2014). Cultivating adjunct faculty: Strategies beyond orientation. Nursing Forum, 49(3), 152–158. doi:10.1111/nuf.12106
||Review of literature to provide an innovative approach to retaining adjunct faculty key to alleviating the nursing shortage and shortage of nursing faculty, and preparing the current and future RN workforce.
Comprehensive literature review. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and ProQuest databases were searched.
||Part-time faculty challenges: Faculty expect these nurses to possess advanced education and skills sets to facilitate instruction. Part-time faculty may be unintentionally unsupported because of lack of experience and teaching instruction. Professional development is lacking. Part-time faculty have little opportunity to mirror excellence in teaching, and end up feeling insecure, disconnected. Lack of knowledge and guidance about roles and low salaries impact part-time faculty.
||Schaar, G. L., Titzer, J. L., & Beckham, R. (2015). Onboarding new adjunct clinical nursing faculty using a quality and safety education for nurses-based orientation model. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(2), 111–115. doi:10.3928/01484834-20150120-02
||A comprehensive review of the literature on cultivation of adjunct faculty as nurse educators, and to provide an innovative approach to retaining part-time faculty.
The article does not describe the process used for the review.
||Nursing programs expect advanced education and skill set necessary to facilitate instruction. This makes for a difficult role transition. Receive little to no professional development relative to teaching. There is a missed opportunity to work with full-time faculty who mirror excellent teaching.
||Woodworth, J. A. (2017). Adjunct nurse faculty demographics and intent to stay teaching. Nurse Educator, 42(6), 295–298. doi:10.1097/NNE.0000000000000376
||Study examined the demographic variables that impact adjunct clinical educators' decision to leave their teaching position.
Descriptive, correlational design. Quantitative study.
Six associate degree nursing program in the Northeastern United States. N = 52 adjunct clinical educators.
||Adjunct nurse educators are needed; however, full-time employment in addition to teaching negatively impacted intent to stay for part-time faculty. Orientation programs improve retention. Socialization to this new role supports retention as well. Incentives might be beneficial to retain adjunct faculty.