The number of enrolled online students between 2012 and 2014 grew despite overall declines in higher education enrollment during the same period (Allen & Seaman, 2016). According to Walters, Grover, Turner, and Alexander (2017), nontraditional students are changing the higher education landscape because they are older, have families, and have different motivations for attending college. Also, changes in adult learning styles contribute to declining student numbers in traditional course enrollment and a higher demand for online courses (Gray, 2013). In a study of 109 business undergraduates, the three primary factors motivating students to take online courses are convenience, enjoyment, and independence (Nonis & Fenner, 2012).
Evidence supports a positive correlation between nurses with a higher educational degree and provision of quality patient care (Sherrod, 2014). The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 2015) noted that nearly 80% of employers of new graduates prefer baccalaureate degree-prepared nurses. A demand for more online nursing programs and a push by hospital administrators to hire baccalaureate-prepared nurses have led to tremendous growth in postlicensure nursing programs. The National League for Nursing (NLN), in a 2015 vision statement, highlighted the need for faculty to adequately prepare students for emerging technologies. According to the AACN (2017), more than 600 Registered Nurse-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-to-BSN) programs are offered online or partially online. In recognition of the importance of online education, educators can expect to be solicited to teach online courses (Skiba, 2016).
Nursing faculty teaching traditional classroom courses are being asked to deliver content in an online format (Wingo, Peters, Ivankova, & Gurley, 2016). The transition to teaching online creates faculty dissatisfaction and frustration with new role responsibilities (Sword, 2012). This shift from traditional classroom teaching to online teaching can be a challenge for faculty (Russell, 2015). Fear of Web technology and disillusionment with the organization's support services are potential factors leading to dissatisfaction with teaching online (Sword, 2012). Faculty report issues of increased workload, limited technical skills, and the need to learn online teaching pedagogy (Gazza, 2017; Russell, 2015). Bolliger, Inan, and Wasilik (2014) identified factors influencing faculty satisfaction with teaching online in higher education. Results indicated that the factors of reliable technology, workload, compensation, preparation, and evaluation can affect faculty satisfaction teaching online.
Professional mentoring has a positive correlation with faculty job satisfaction. In a national study investigating the relationship between mentorship and job satisfaction, results indicated that approximately 40% of full-time nursing faculty (N = 959) who participated in mentoring activities reported a slightly higher job satisfaction rate compared with faculty not participating in mentorship (Chung & Kowalski, 2012). Although Chung's and Kowalski's (2012) study did not focus on faculty teaching online, mentorship may lead to higher faculty satisfaction levels with teaching online. Training and technology support in the use of hardware, software, and the Learning Management System (LMS) may lead to higher comfort levels with teaching online. According to Skiba (2017), “Faculty satisfaction is built on the assumption that faculty have the necessary support to offer online learning and includes technology infrastructure, professional development, technical and instructional support, and administrative support” (p. 364).
The literature review revealed a gap in empirical research on nursing faculty satisfaction with teaching online that evaluates the effects of training, technology support, and administrative support. Higher satisfaction rates in faculty teaching online may lead to faculty retention. Thus, there is a need to explore the evidence that implementation of support services by the institutions is associated with faculty satisfaction with teaching online.
The purpose of this descriptive and comparative quantitative study was to examine differences in satisfaction levels between nursing faculty who have and have not received support services to teach online. Discovering which factors of support services contributed to faculty satisfaction with teaching online was essential so administrators can address the needs. The Faculty Satisfaction Teaching Online (FSTO) instrument (Howe, 2015), focusing on identifying faculty satisfaction teaching online, was used to collect data in this study.
Roger's diffusion of innovation theory (DOI) (2003) is a change theory that provides a framework for understanding the process of accepting and adapting to a new idea or discovery. Faculty who are tasked with the challenges of transitioning from traditional classroom teaching to online teaching may initially find difficulties learning new technology. Acceptance of the change to an unfamiliar teaching environment may take time. Ultimately, the process one goes through to accept change related to technology is the foundation of DOI theory. The DOI theory has five attributes that directly correspond to the acceptance of technology to teach nursing online: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability.
Relative advantage is a perception by individuals that any new idea is better than the previously held idea (Rogers, 2003). Nursing administrators may wish to implement new online courses or programs to provide nursing education. However, resistance may occur if faculty are skeptical of, intimidated by, or do not understand the need for a new way to deliver nursing education.
Compatibility refers to congruency of ideas related to the innovation (Rogers, 2003). Nurse educators have traditionally taught in face-to-face classrooms and value the interaction that occurs with students. It may be difficult for nursing faculty to imagine that student interaction in an online classroom can be as significant as in the traditional classroom and provide similar opportunities for rich dialogue. Creating a presence in the online classroom requires faculty to have training on appropriate teaching pedagogy in this setting. Values important to nursing faculty must be maintained as they begin teaching online.
Adoption of a new idea is affected by its complexity (Rogers, 2003). Use of technology can be perceived as difficult to nursing faculty. In addition, faculty may not view teaching online to be as effective in the delivery of nursing education as teaching in traditional classrooms. Technology support can significantly decrease any feelings of fear or intimidation that may result from technology use. Training on the set up and maintenance of an online course will decrease the complexity of technology use and ultimately lead to quicker adoption of teaching online.
Commitment to making a change is affected by the amount of time individuals can try out a new idea (Rogers, 2003). If faculty are asked to create online classrooms or are asked to teach online with little to no training, trialability of this new teaching format may not be available. Training can help nursing faculty to learn and practice teaching in a safe online environment.
Prior to acceptance of a new idea or innovation, individuals must be able to observe its potential for success (Rogers, 2003). Nurse educators may not immediately envision the necessity or the potential of online education. The examination of how to teach, how to manage an online course, or how to use new technology can either impede or accelerate the adoption process of teaching online. Mentors can serve as guides by showing faculty positive outcomes of student learning online. Mentors also serve as change agents when faculty can act as observers of the online teaching experience.
Faculty must see an advantage to teaching online versus the traditional method of face-to-face teaching in a classroom setting. For innovation of a new idea to occur, an individual must accept it through a process of social change (Rogers, 2003). Social change in nursing education can occur through mentor-ship as the mentor guides the mentee in the transition to online teaching. The DOI is a relevant theory to understand the introduction of teaching online and the process of faculty acceptance and adoption of a new way of teaching.
This quantitative, comparative, and descriptive study design guided data collection and analysis with an aim to examine differences in satisfaction levels between nursing faculty who have and have not received support services to teach online. Before initiating the study, institutional review board (IRB) approval from a university located in the western United States was secured. The IRB application included confidentiality of collected data, consent to participate in the study, and protection of human rights.
An online survey was used to collect data for this study. The survey consisted of three sections: demographic data, questions about receiving support services using response categories of yes or no, and the 19-item FSTO instrument (Howe, 2015). Data collection instruments need to reflect what is already known about the phenomenon of interest (Bolliger et al., 2014; Chung & Kowalski, 2012; Horvitz, Beach, Anderson, & Xia, 2014; Nguyen, Zierler, & Nguyen, 2011; Robinia & Anderson, 2010). Thus, the 19-item FSTO was developed based on characteristics of teaching online extrapolated from the literature review. Aspects of satisfaction teaching online included student interaction and feedback, administrative and technical support, competency, self-efficacy, collaboration, quality of teaching, and flexibility. Support services for this study are defined in Table 1.
Support Services Definitions
The 19-question items of the FSTO were used to rate faculty satisfaction levels based on a 5-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = highly dissatisfied to 5 = highly satisfied. Faculty satisfaction teaching online was defined as the sum of the 19 responses, for a score range of 19 to 95. To classify the level of faculty satisfaction with teaching online, the score range was divided by five levels according to the 5-point Likert scale used in the FSTO. The sum score of 19 to 33 is defined as faculty highly dissatisfied with teaching online; the sum score of 34 to 49 is defined as faculty dissatisfied with teaching online; the sum score of 49 to 65 is defined as neutral with teaching online; the sum score of 66 to 80 is defined as satisfied with teaching online; and the sum score of 81 to 95 is defined as highly satisfied with teaching online.
Three experts in online teaching completed a content validity evaluation of the FSTO instrument using the criteria of ease of use, readability, and understandability of the question items. Three questions were edited for clarity, and no questions were removed from the FSTO after expert reviews. Following university IRB approval, a pilot study, including a purposive sample of 26 faculty having taught at least one fully online course, was conducted to test the internal consistency reliability of the FSTO instrument. The questions' numbers and the content of the FSTO remained the same after the pilot study. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the internal consistency reliability for the 19-item FSTO was .895 in the pilot study and .941for the main study, indicating an acceptable level of reliability for a newly developed instrument (Polit & Beck, 2018).
Population, Sample, and Setting
This study recruited all nursing faculty teaching in a public or private nursing school located in 15 randomly selected states in the United States. The selected public and private schools offered BSN, RN-to-BSN completion, master of science in nursing, or doctoral nursing education programs. Statistical power analysis was conducted using the online calculator website G*Power version 3.1 to identify the necessary sample size. The t test for two independent groups statistical test was used to obtain a sample size of 128 with a medium effect size of d = 0.5, α = .05, to achieve 80% power (1-β error probability). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was computed to have a sample size of 179, with a medium effect size of .25 and α = .05 to have 80% power. Exclusion criteria for this study comprised nursing faculty who taught only in a face-to-face, hybrid, or blended course or nursing faculty from a state other than the 15 selected states.
An e-mail explaining the study purpose, request for participation, IRB approval, a time line for completion, and a link to the online survey was sent to 530 nursing faculty within the 15 selected states. The web survey was hosted online using SurveyMonkey™. After accessing the online Web survey, faculty voluntarily participating in the study were presented with a consent form for review and acceptance. Informed consent included the goals of the study, data collection procedures, amount of time necessary, confidentiality, voluntary participation, rights to withdraw, and researcher contact information. No identifying data were collected, and no harm was anticipated to occur because of participation in the study. The survey link remained open for 27 days and closed after the minimum sample size of 179 was met. There were no requests to withdraw from the study. A total of 203 surveys were downloaded directly from SurveyMonkey to SPSS® version 22. The response rate was 38%.
Eighteen incomplete surveys were removed from the data, and a final number of 185 completed surveys was analyzed to report the results. Data were entered into SPSS for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the participants' demographics and the level of faculty satisfaction teaching online. According to the research questions, responses between groups formed by teaching experience (i.e., years of experience teaching face-to-face courses and the number of courses taught online) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA to identify differences in faculty satisfaction teaching online. Differences in satisfaction teaching online between groups of nursing faculty having received various support services to teach online or not were analyzed using an independent t test. The six independent variables of support services included mentoring, release time, technical support services for hardware, software and the LMS, and formal or informal in-service training for software, hardware, and the LMS. Significance was set at p = .05 for statistical testing.
Nursing faculty participants were predominately female, Caucasian, and over 40 years. Most participants reported a doctorate as the highest educational degree. For academic rank, most faculty members held an assistant professor position (Table 2). Faculty satisfaction teaching online was the sum of the 19 satisfaction question responses of the FSTO, for a score range from 19 to 95. The mean score of nursing faculty satisfaction teaching online was 74.91 (SD = 12. 46), indicating a level of overall satisfaction.
Summary of Faculty Demographic Information
One-way ANOVA was used to examine differences in nursing faculty satisfaction with teaching online based on the number of years teaching face-to-face courses and the number of courses taught online, respectively. An equal variance among groups was assumed. Results showed no significant difference in faculty satisfaction with teaching online between groups on the basis of the number of years teaching face to face (p = .54). However, a statistically significant difference in faculty satisfaction with teaching online was observed between groups, classified by the number of courses taught fully online [F(3, 185) = 5.17, p = .002] (Table 3). A post hoc Sheffe test identified nursing faculty who taught more than 20 courses fully online had a higher satisfaction level than those who taught only one to five courses.
Summary of One-Way Analysis of Variance for Satisfaction Teaching Online by the Number of Fully Online Courses Taught (N = 185)
A series of independent t tests for six independent variables of support services was used to examine differences in faculty satisfaction with teaching online between who received support services and who did not (Table 4). A statistically significant difference was observed in satisfaction between nursing faculty who received mentoring and nursing faculty who did not, indicating nursing faculty who received mentoring were more satisfied with teaching online (t = 2.72, p < .05). Nursing faculty who received release time had a statistically significant higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not (t = 3.4, p < .05). Nursing faculty who received technical support for software and hardware had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not (t = 2.6, p < .05). Nursing faculty who received technical support for the LMS had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not (t = 2.98, p < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in satisfaction between nursing faculty who received formal or informal training in-services for software and hardware beyond the LMS and those who did not (t = 1.35, p > .05). However, nursing faculty who received formal or informal training in-services for the LMS had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not (t = 3.98, p < .05).
Faculty Satisfaction Teaching Online by the Independent Variables of Support Services (N = 185)
Study results indicated that nursing faculty were overall satisfied with teaching online. This result is consistent with McLawhon's and Cutright's (2011) correlational study with 110 faculty members who have taught an online course. The primary purpose of McLawhon's and Cutright's (2011) study was to determine a relationship between the learning styles of online teachers and job satisfaction teaching online. Researchers administered the Readiness for Education at a Distance Indicator test and the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty job satisfaction survey. Findings showed 61% of participants reported being very satisfied and another 34% reported being somewhat satisfied with teaching online (McLawhon & Cutright, 2011). Bolliger et al. (2014) conducted a study to develop and validate an instrument called the Online Instructor Satisfaction Measure. Faculty from a large university in the West were recruited, and 168 completed surveys were analyzed to report results. Study results indicated that faculty were moderately satisfied with teaching online.
The current study result revealed no significant differences in faculty satisfaction with teaching online, based on the number of years teaching face-to-face courses. There was a preconceived idea that experience, maturity, and teaching skills may be factors that lead faculty to be more satisfied with teaching online. The nonsignificant difference in faculty satisfaction teaching online based on the number of years teaching face-to-face courses could be associated with variation of teaching skills, speed of technology adoption, and digital language familiarity among faculty. Strategies used to teach in the traditional classroom setting that might not be applicable to the online teaching environment include hand gestures or facial expressions. In an online teaching format, faculty must rely on different skills such as probing questions, written explanations, and technology-driven learning experiences (Hoffmann & Dudjak, 2012).
Self-efficacy reflects confidence in the ability and belief that one can perform specific tasks or skills. The current study indicated that faculty teaching more than 20 courses online had higher satisfaction scores than those teaching only one to five online courses. Horvitz et al. (2014) employed a cross sectional survey study to examine online faculty self-efficacy at a large university in the Midwest. Ninety-one completed surveys were analyzed, and the result indicated that 85% of faculty were satisfied or very satisfied with teaching online. In addition, self-efficacy was found to have a positive impact on satisfaction with teaching online (Horvitz et al., 2014). Teaching an online course several times may increase self-efficacy and overall satisfaction. In a survey study of 107 educators, most faculty reported having confidence with teaching online and faculty who taught six or more courses reported a higher level of satisfaction (Walters et al., 2017). Repetition of teaching online courses allows faculty to identify strategies that are effective or ineffective, technology that works or does not work, and experiences that make each subsequent course taught less difficult. Over time, faculty will increase autonomy and feel more comfortable with teaching online.
Faculty role development and orientation to online teaching are necessary for distance education (Billings & Halstead, 2016). The current study results showed nursing faculty who received mentoring had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not. For novice online faculty, early acceptance of teaching online may or may not be present. Mentoring is considered a useful supportive strategy to assist faculty in the transition to online teaching (Robinia & Anderson, 2010). Jeffers and Mariani (2017) conducted a mixed-methods study with 252 faculty to explore the effect of a formal mentoring program on career satisfaction. Results showed no significant difference in career satisfaction between those who were mentored and those who were not. However, because of mentoring in the role of online instructor, faculty reported feeling supported (Jeffers & Mariani, 2017). Mentoring to novice nursing faculty is a critical resource as they adopt the new role of online teacher. According to Vitale (2010), mentoring provides the necessary support to assist faculty in the transition from traditional classroom teaching to an online teaching environment. Mentors serve as guides, coaches, and role models for faculty to take on the new challenge of teaching online.
Faculty perceives a need to have release time for preparation of online courses as a necessary commodity in the ability to provide online instruction (Nguyen et al., 2011). In a qualitative study of 10 faculty who taught online, Meyer (2012) researched faculty perceptions of teaching productivity. Several factors, including time for course development, were identified to influence teaching productivity. Many faculty noted it took much more time to create an online course versus a traditional classroom course (Meyer, 2012). The current study results showed that nursing faculty who received release time for course preparation and management had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not. In a phenomenological study exploring perceptions and experiences of 14 nursing faculty transitioning to online teaching, participants reported it took almost double the time to teach online and preparation time was essential (Sword, 2012). Administrators may benefit from discussing the issues of course construction and management with experienced faculty to help determine appropriate amounts of time for specific activities designed for online courses.
The current study indicated that nursing faculty who received technical support for software, hardware, and LMS had significantly higher satisfaction scores than faculty who did not. This significant finding may be a result of basic knowledge using computers and common programs in a daily work environment. The large percentage of faculty over the age of 50 in this study could indicate a need for technical assistance. However, older nursing faculty in this study have had longer experience with teaching face to face and have taught more online courses. In addition, the faculty in this study may be considered early adopters of technology for investigating new technologies themselves and leading the way for online education in nursing. However, the use of computers and technology in nursing education can be a struggle and provoke anxiety in many faculty (Fiedler, Giddens, & North, 2014). Administrators should be aware that faculty teaching online need technical support. It is beneficial for faculty to receive the expert assistance of technical support staff to help navigate through unexpected challenges found in online course delivery.
Based on results of the current study, no statistically significant difference was observed in satisfaction between nursing faculty who received or did not receive training in hardware and software. Hoekstra's (2014) study of 148 online faculty indicated no statistically significant relationship for training with online technology and satisfaction teaching online. Berman and Hassell (2014) described social resilience as a major factor in technology comfort for individuals who did not grow up with technology but rather have adapted because of need. Faculty transitioning to online teaching may possess higher social resilience when faced with technology challenges. In the current study, 75% of participants reported being older than 50 years. Social resilience may be a large factor regarding why training for software and hardware is not significant in satisfaction teaching online.
The finding of the current study indicated that nursing faculty who received formal or informal training in-services for the LMS had a significantly higher satisfaction score than faculty who did not. Talcott, O'Donnell, and Burns (2013) described a grant-funded program at the University of Pittsburg School of Nursing in which nursing faculty received technology training in areas of learning technologies, distance education, informatics, telehealth, and human simulation over a 5-year period. A portion of the training primarily focused on effective use of technology for course management within the LMS. Although the training was deemed a success, respondents reported being less confident with technology use (Talcott et al., 2013). Nguyen et al. (2011) surveyed nursing faculty teaching online (N = 193) to ask about their perceptions of receiving training for technology use. Results showed 65% of the respondents rated themselves as competent in the use of computer fundamentals and 59% as competent with technology for distance learning. Also, 80% reported receiving distance education training from their institution. Respondents addressed the fact that although the institution provided a considerable amount of training and support, more training was needed (Nguyen et al., 2011). In a phenomenological study of 14 nursing faculty teaching at least 50% of their course load online, researchers conducted structured and unstructured interviews to discover the experiences of nursing faculty who teach online. Results of this study showed there were differences between face-to-face and online teaching in areas of teaching pedagogy, workload, availability to online students, and access to resources (Gazza, 2017). Understanding the needs of online faculty and providing support services to teach online is critical to ensure faculty retention.
The study results suggested that nursing faculty who receive support services to teach online are overall more satisfied than those who have not. The study evidence contributes knowledge to nursing education by highlighting the importance of mentoring, release time, technical support, and training for increasing faculty satisfaction with teaching online. The selected variables of support services for this study were a snapshot of all possible variables that could affect faculty satisfaction with teaching online. However, other possible variables influence faculty satisfaction with teaching online. The FSTO (Howe, 2015) instrument included eight significant variables extrapolated from the literature review. Other possibilities not measured in this study include intrinsic and extrinsic rewards such as autonomy, competency, interaction with students, and compensation. Future studies might include these variables to identify more factors that influence faculty satisfaction with teaching online, as well as conducting predictive research to identify the most influential factors to promote faculty satisfaction. Because of the 38% response rate, the study findings might not be generalizable to all nursing faculty teaching online. More research is needed on nursing faculty satisfaction with teaching online as online programming continues to grow.
Satisfaction teaching online is an important concept for administrators to consider as the demand for online education continues to increase its availability. Increased satisfaction teaching online can promote faculty retention, thus enabling nursing programs to increase student enrollment and ultimately leading to increases in the number of nurse graduates to meet anticipated nurse vacancies. This study provides insight to administrators of nursing educational programs regarding the need to start or continue to provide support services such as mentoring, release time, technical support, and training to nursing faculty teaching online.
- Allen, I.E. & Seaman, J. (with Poulin, R., and Straut, T.T.). (2016). Online report card: Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/survey_report/2015-online-report-card-tracking-online-education-united-states/
- American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2015, October). Employment of new nurse graduates and employer preferences for baccalaureate-prepared nurses. Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/News-Information/Research-Data-Center/Employment/2014
- American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017, June). Degree completion programs for registered nurses: RN to master's degree and RN to baccalaureate programs. Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/News-Information/Fact-Sheets/Degree-Completion-Programs
- Berman, R. & Hassell, D. (2014). Digital native and digital immigrant use of scholarly network for doctoral learners. Journal of Educators Online, 11(1), 1–25. doi:10.9743/JEO.2014.1.4 [CrossRef]
- Billings, D.M. & Halstead, J.A. (2016). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
- Bolliger, D.U., Inan, F.A. & Wasilik, O. (2014). Development and validation of the online instructor satisfaction measure (OISM). Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17, 183–195.
- Chung, C.E. & Kowalski, S. (2012). Job stress, mentoring, psychological empowerment, and job satisfaction among nursing faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 51, 381–388. doi:10.3928/01484834-20120509-03 [CrossRef]
- Fiedler, R., Giddens, J. & North, S. (2014). Faculty experience of a technological innovation in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35, 387–391. doi:10.5480/13-1188 [CrossRef]
- Gazza, E.A. (2017). The experience of teaching online in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 56, 343–349. doi:10.3928/01484834-20170518-05 [CrossRef]
- Gray, D. (2013). Barriers to online postsecondary education crumble: Enrollment in traditional face-to-face courses declines as enrollment in online courses increases. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 6, 345–348. doi:10.19030/cier.v6i3.8537 [CrossRef]
- Hoekstra, B. (2014). Relating training to job satisfaction: A survey of online faculty members. Journal of Adult Education, 43(1), 1–10.
- Hoffmann, R.L. & Dudjak, L.A. (2012). From onsite to online: Lessons learned from faculty pioneers. Journal of Professional Nursing, 28, 255–258. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2011.11.015 [CrossRef]
- Horvitz, B.S., Beach, A.L., Anderson, M.L. & Xia, J. (2014). Examination of faculty self-efficacy related to online teaching. Innovative Higher Education, 40, 305–316. doi:10.1007/s10755-014-9316-1 [CrossRef]
- Howe, D.L. (2015). Differences in online teaching satisfaction of nursing faculty: A descriptive comparative study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 10746143)
- Jeffers, S. & Mariani, B. (2017). The effect of a formal mentoring program on career satisfaction and intent to stay in the faculty role for novice nurse faculty. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38, 18–22. doi:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000104 [CrossRef]
- McLawhon, R. & Cutright, M. (2012). Instructor learning styles as indicators of online faculty satisfaction. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15, 341–353.
- Meyer, K.A. (2012). The influence of online teaching on faculty productivity. Innovative Higher Education, 37, 37–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-011-9183-y doi:10.1007/s10755-011-9183-y [CrossRef]
- National League for Nursing. (2015). NLN vision: A vision for the changing faculty role: Preparing students for the technological world of health care. Retrieved from http://www.nln.org/newsroom/nln-position-documents/nln-living-documents
- Nguyen, D.N., Zierler, B. & Nguyen, H.Q. (2011). A survey of nursing faculty needs for training in the use of new technologies for education and practice. Journal of Nursing Education, 50, 181–189. doi:10.3928/01484834-20101130-06 [CrossRef]
- Nonis, S.A. & Fenner, G.H. (2012). An exploratory study of student motivations for taking online courses and learning outcomes. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 7, 2–13. Retrieved from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11933.pdf
- Polit, D.F. & Beck, C.T. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
- Robinia, K.A. & Anderson, M.L. (2010). Online teaching efficacy of nurse faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26, 168–175. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2010.02.006 [CrossRef]
- Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
- Russell, B.H. (2015). The who, what, and how of evaluation within online nursing education: State of the science. Journal of Nursing Education, 54, 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20141228-02 doi:10.3928/01484834-20141228-02 [CrossRef]
- Sherrod, D.R. (2014). A call for continued education. Nursing Management, 45(11), 9–10. doi:10.1097/01.NUMA.0000455733.71496.5d [CrossRef]
- Skiba, D. (2016). The state of online education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 37, 244–245. doi:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000047 [CrossRef]
- Skiba, D. (2017). Quality standards for online learning. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38, 364–365. doi:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000247 [CrossRef]
- Sword, T.S. (2012). The transition to online teaching as experienced by nurse educators. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33, 269–271. doi:10.5480/1536-5026-33.4.269 [CrossRef]
- Talcott, K., O'Donnell, J.M. & Burns, H.K. (2013). Technology and the nurse educator: Are you elite?Nurse Educator, 38, 126–131. doi:10.1097/NNE.0b013e31828dc2a8 [CrossRef]
- Vitale, A.T. (2010). Faculty development and mentorship using selected online asynchronous teaching strategies. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41, 549–556. doi:10.3928/00220124-20100802-02 [CrossRef]
- Walters, S., Grover, K.S., Turner, R.C. & Alexander, J.C. (2017). Faculty perceptions related to teaching online: A starting point for designing faculty development initiatives. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(4), 4–19. doi:10.17718/tojde.340365 [CrossRef]
- Wingo, N.P., Peters, G.B., Ivankova, N.V. & Gurley, D.K. (2016). Benefits and challenges of teaching nursing online: Exploring perspectives of different stakeholders. Journal of Nursing Education, 55, 433–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20160715-03 doi:10.3928/01484834-20160715-03 [CrossRef]
Support Services Definitions
|Mentoring||Mentoring may include formal or informal interaction with an experienced individual teaching online. The mentor services may include assistance with curriculum development, course construction, discussion question formation, examination construction, best practices teaching online, and general development in the role of online teacher.|
|Release time for course preparation and management||Release time may include the ability to forego normal academic duties such as clinical load, committee meetings, or teaching load to prepare for or to teach an online course.|
|Technical support services for software and hardware||Technical support services may include a computer technician available to assist with technical issues related to hardware and software needs, such as PowerPoint®, Microsoft® Word, Excel®, Camtasia®, desktop, laptop, iPad®, and smartphone.|
|Technical support services for the Learning Management System (LMS)||A computer technician was available to assist with technical issues related to the LMS, such as uploading documents, setting up discussion boards, posting grades, and creating rubrics.|
|Training in-services related to software and hardware||Training may include assistance with computer programs such as PowerPoint, Word, Excel, or Camtasia, and the hardware components of the desktop, laptop, iPad, or smartphone.|
|Training in-services related to the LMS||Formal or informal training related to the LMS may include instruction in how to upload documents, upload video links, set up discussion boards, enable chat sessions, create rubrics, or set up a grade book and post grades.|
Summary of Faculty Demographic Information
|Demographic Variable||Frequency (n)||%|
| 20 to 30||4||2.2|
| 31 to 40||15||8.1|
| 41 to 50||29||15.7|
| 51 to 60||71||38.4|
| ⩾ 60||66||35.7|
| African American||8||4.3|
| American Indian/Alaskan Native||1||0.5|
| Asian/Pacific Islander||1||0.5|
|Highest level of education|
|Current academic rank|
| Assistant professor||60||32.4|
| Associate professor||40||21.6|
Summary of One-Way Analysis of Variance for Satisfaction Teaching Online by the Number of Fully Online Courses Taught (N = 185)
|No. of Fully Online Courses Taught||M||Source||Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F|
|1 to 5||70.28||Between||2255.69||3||751.90||5.17**|
|6 to 10||72.71||Within||26342.92||181||145.54|
|11 to 20||77.35||Total||28598.62||184|
Faculty Satisfaction Teaching Online by the Independent Variables of Support Services (N = 185)
|Received release time|
|Received technical support for software and hardware|
|Received technical support for LMS|
|Received training for software and hardware|
|Received training for LMS|