Leadership and job satisfaction are recognized as fundamental elements influencing the overall effectiveness of an organization (Kennerly, 1989). There have been leadership theories developed in describing and explaining leadership styles and their influence on job satisfaction. Most of the early leadership theories concerned transactional leadership. Recently, however, a paradigm shift occurred with a focus on transformational leadership (Medley & Larochelle, 1995). Nursing deans in baccalaureate degree programs and nursing directors in associate degree programs hold important leadership positions. They have responsibilities not only to acquire nursing faculty but to use innovative leadership skills to retain a satisfied work force (Bonaquist, 1991). Job satisfaction of nursing faculty is an essential component of their quality of life. It is also an important aspect of nursing faculty retention and work commitment (Petty & Hatcher, 1991). Retention of highly qualified nursing faculty affects the reputation of the school of nursing, the faculty commitment to the organization, and the learning environment for students (Moody, 1996). Nursing faculty desire and even demand jobs that are satisfying (Petty & Hatcher, 1991).
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem
The higher nursing education environment and health care systems in Taiwan are rapidly changing. To manage the change effectively, nursing leaders must understand the social processes that affect employees' job-related attitudes, particularly leadership style (Morrison, Jones, & Fuller, 1997). The demand by consumers for higher éducation and quality education is increasing. Baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs are concerned with faculty research productivity and excellence in teaching and service. Nursing faculty need to work harder to meet the demands of their jobs. Job dissatisfaction may occur if nursing leaders do not use effective leadership styles in guiding nursing faculty to accomplish the multiple job expectations. Nursing deans and nursing directors in Taiwan are often selected for leadership positions based on their performance in academic endeavors rather than leadership skills (Goldenberg, 1990). They may come to the leadership position with inadequate leadership preparation. Since nursing deans or nursing directors are usually women, they may not have been socialized to assume leadership roles (Goldenberg, 1990).
According to the descriptions of some nursing faculty in Taiwan who had resigned their positions, they left the school because they were not satisfied with their jobs, and the dissatisfaction was related to nursing deans' leadership styles. The resignation of qualified nursing faculty because of job dissatisfaction needs to be addressed since the number of qualified nursing faculty is inadequate and loss of these faculty may influence the stability and management of the nursing schools. Nursing faculty dissatisfaction threatens the integrity of the higher education system (Moody, 1996). Thus, leadership under these circumstances may require a transformational nursing dean or nursing director who is able to inspire the nursing faculty, create a new vision, deal individually with nursing faculty to meet their developmental needs, and encourage new approaches and more effort toward problem solving. It also requires a transactional nursing dean or nursing director to provide contingent reinforcements in motivating nursing faculty to expend the necessary effort to achieve the goals of the school and program. Nursing leadership is little understood and critical analysis of the theory and practice of nursing leadership is poorly developed (Antrobus, 1997). Although researchers in this study reasoned that transformational and transactional leadership styles are required for promoting nursing faculty job satisfaction in Taiwan, no studies except the one reported here have been conducted to examine the influence of nursing deans' and nursing directors' leadership styles on nursing faculty job satisfaction in baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs in Taiwan.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of nursing deans' and nursing directors' transformational and transactional leadership styles on nursing faculty job satisfaction in associate and baccalaureate degree nursing programs in Taiwan.
The Taiwan area of the Republic of China is located in the southeastern sea of China. Taiwan is 245 miles in length from north to south, and 90 miles in width from east to west at its widest points. Since Taiwan is mountainous, transportation is not convenient. Associate and baccalaureate degree nursing programs are distributed throughout Taiwan,
Taiwan has built a modern, democratic, industrialized society without sacrificing its cultural heritage. Traditional social relations and conduct are primarily influenced by Confucianism. Confucius based his teaching on a carefully ranked hierarchy founded on primary relationships between the people and their rulers. All of these relationships were defined by a strict code of conduct known as Li. Li was founded in filial piety that includes strict observation of the prescribed rituals and obethence to a ruler who governs with the consent of the subjects in recognition of his or her goodness and ability (Hu, 1992). The official language is Mandarin Chinese with English as a major second language. Based on the Taiwanese culture, criticizing nursing leaders or rating nursing deans' or nursing directors' leadership styles by nursing faculty was a challenge. Leadership research is a very sensitive field for nursing in Taiwan. Cultural perspectives had to be carefully considered in the research methodology.
Significance of the Study
The study provides a mechanism by which nursing deans or nursing directors can obtain feedback from nursing faculty about leadership styles. Such feedback can then serve as the basis for further development of leadership theory across cultures and disciplines. Triólo, Pozehl, and Mahaffey (1997) indicated that the faculty model of the 21st century will be one that promotes leadership and a paradigm shift from the leadership of formal leaders, such as deans and directors, to the expectation of faculty as leaders. This study provides a guide to the preparation of nursing faculty as effective leaders for the dynamic environment of the future. This study also provides a basis for informing developers of leadership training programs that can lead to improved nursing academic leadership. Since most existing leadership concepts are transactional, adding transformational concepts to the existing leadership framework may be very useful for advancing knowledge about leadership practice (Scandura & Schriesheim, 1994).
The theory of transformational versus transactional leadership (Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1994) guided and supported the purpose of this study. A transactional leader clarifies the role and task requirements for followers and provides direction as well as contingent reinforcements in motivating the followers to expend the necessary effort to accomplish desired goals. A transformational leader focuses on directly increasing followers' confidence and elevating the level of followers' needs on Maslow*s (1954) hierarchy to induce extra effect and generate performance beyond the followers expectations. Transactional leaders use contingent reward and management-by-exception leadership styles. In contrast, transformational leadership includes four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Laissezfaire is a nontransactional and nontransformational leadership style. It is the avoidance or absence of leadership.
Subordinate satisfaction refers to two kinds of job satisfaction. One refers to subordinate satisfaction with the extent to which the job meets various individual needs, and one specifically refers to subordinate satisfaction with supervisors' leadership methods used for getting subordinates' jobs done (Bass & Avolio, 1994). Leadership patterns in Chinese society are still influenced by Confucian precepts that leaders are expected to set moral examples for their followers. The best leaders work themselves out of their jobs and make subordinates feel that their accomplishments are the results of their own efforts, but such stimulus for transformational leadership in Taiwan is offset by the equally strong transactional Mandarin tradition of the importance to the leader of being able to manipulate rewards and punishments of followers. Values from these traditions continue to affect Chinese leadership (Bass, 1985).
Based on the theory and purpose of this study, the following research hypotheses were developed: 1) Nursing deans' and nursing directors' transformational leadership styles and contingent reward transactional leadership style positively predict nursing faculty job satisfaction in baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs in Taiwan after controlling for personal and environmental factors; 2) Nursing deans' and nursing directors' management-by-exception transactional leadership styles and laissez-faire leadership styles negatively predict nursing faculty job satisfaction in baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs in Taiwan after controlling for personal and environmental factors.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Since there was no research available that directly pertained to the present study's purpose, studies of the literature that focused on the influence of transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction in different fields were reviewed. These studies were few. They were conducted in business, clinical nursing, and basic education settings. These studies supported positive causal relationship between transformational and/or transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction, as well as the negative causal relationship between laissezfaire style and job satisfaction. For example, most recently, Morrison and colleagues (1997) surveyed 442 nursing staff in a regional medical center using questionnaires and found that transformational and transactional leadership styles significantly and positively predicted job satisfaction (p <.01). The study did not indicate specific significant leadership predictors. Anonymity was assured.
Kirby, Paradise, and King (1992) surveyed a convenience sample of practicing educators that included 88 kindergarten and elementary school teachers, 7 principals, and 8 assistant school administrators. They found idealized influence significantly and positively predicted satisfaction with leadership style (p <-001) and laissezfaire significantly and negatively predicted satisfaction with leadership style (p <-05). Similarly, in the business setting, Seltzer and Bass (1990) surveyed a convenience sample of 250 subordinates of 85 full-time managers and found idealized influence was the only significant and positive predictor for satisfaction with leadership style (p <.001). The findings of the two studies indicated that leaders displaying idealized influence more frequently increased subordinates' satisfaction with leadership style. However, leaders displaying laissez-faire style more frequently decreased subordinates' satisfaction with leadership style.
In a different study design, Delgua (1988) combined idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation leadership styles into a global transformational leadership style, as well as combined contingent reward and management-by-exception leadership styles into a global transactional leadership style. He found that the global transformational and transactional leadership styles significantly and positively predicted satisfaction with leadership style (p <.01). In this study, a target population of 400 exempt and nonexempt employees of a manufacturing firm located in a lower-middle class multiethnic area of the Northeast United States was surveyed and a response rate of 29% was achieved UV = 117). Internal consistency reliability (Alpha = .46) for management-byexception was a limitation in this study.
A cross-sectional survey design was used. The quantitative approach was used since the study was guided by the theory of transformational versus transactional leadership and the research hypotheses could be derived from the theory. Furthermore, the theory had explicit description of the influence of Chinese culture on leadership. It had a potential high level of applicability to Taiwanese culture.
Based on previous transformational and transactional leadership studies, the response rates varied from 22% to 68%. Moderate or large amounts of missing data were found in these studies because the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form directions specifically give respondents the option of leaving an item blank if they regard it to be nonapplicable or if they are uncertain about it. With consideration of the potential problem of response rate and missing data, a mailing large enough to result in an appropriate sample size was necessary in the present study.
There were a total of 11 baccalaureate degree nursing programs and 10 associate degree nursing programs in Taiwan. Five of the 11 baccalaureate degree programs were public institutions. The 10 associate degree nursing programs were all private institutions. Since the roster of nursing faculty was unavailable, all nursing deans and directors were requested to inform the first author of the total number of nursing faculty in their programs. A package including a Chinese cover letter, an English invitation letter, and an express mail-stamped return postcard was sent to each nursing dean and nursing director of education programs that requested the total number of nursing faculty. Eighteen of the 21 nursing deans and directors responded with a combined total of 517 nursing faculty. A convenience sample of 517 nursing faculty identified by nursing deans and nursing directors in 8 baccalaureate degree nursing programs and 10 associate degree nursing programs were invited to participate in this study. Two of these programs were public institutions.
Measures were selected that were conceptually congruent with the theoretical definitions of transformational and transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction. Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, contingent reward, active management-by-exception, passive management-by-exception, laissez-faire, and nursing faculty satisfaction with leadership style were separately measured by each subscale of the 38-item Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5-45. The MLQ form 5-45 was developed by Bass and Avolio (1995). The item scale ranged from "not at all" (O) to "frequently if not always" (4). Subjects were directed that **when the item is irrelevant or does not apply, or where you are uncertain or do not know, leave the answer blank."
Nursing faculty's satisfaction with the extent to which the job met various individual needs was measured by a 40-item Nursing Faculty Satisfaction Questionnaire (NFSQ). The 40-item NFSQ was modified from a 42-item NFSQ developed by Martin (1991). The item scale ranged from "very dissatisfied" (O) to "very satisfied" (4). A 20item Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) developed by Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist (1977) was used to examine the concurrent validity of NFSQ. Personal and environmental factors were measured by a 13-item demographic questionnaire developed by the first author. The validity and reliability of MLQ Form 5-45, NFSQ, and MSQ had been established in the United States. Minor modifications of these measures were performed.
All questionnaires were translated into Chinese by two independent bilingual persons. They worked in the language translation institute. The translators have a high degree of familiarity with both languages, having lived for extended periods in both cultures. The back translation was used to verify the translation of questionnaires. A modified Total Design Method (TDM) for mailed survey developed by Dillman (1978) was used to guide the construction of the questionnaires to minimize the response errors and achieve a higher response rate. To avoid correspondence or perceptual bias, the order of questionnaires was: 1) MSQ; 2) NFSQ; 3) Subordinate Satisfaction Subscale on the MLQ Form 5-45; 4) leadership subscale on the MLQ Form 5-45; and 5) the demographic questionnaire. The order of the subscale items was randomized. Everyone got the same questionnaire with items in the same order.
The reliability and validity for each tool was u reassessed since this study was conducted cross-culturally. Content validity for MLQ Form 5-45 and NFSQ were separately assessed by bilingual professors who have doctoral degrees. The index of content validity (CVI) for MLQ form 5-45 was .75 and 1.0. CVl for NFSQ was .90. Based on the feedback of content validity, inappropriately translated items were corrected. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for each subscale and scale ranged from .71 to .94. The construct validity of the leadership aubscale of MLQ Form 5-45 was examined through the hypothesis testing approach. The hypotheses of relationships between transformational and transactional leadership styles and job satisfaction were supported. Concurrent validity of NFSQ ^ was checked by examining the relationship between NFSQ score and MSQ score. A significant and positive relationship was found (r = .77, p = .000). The strength of the relationship was moderate (rp 2 = .59).
Data Collection Procedure
Permission was obtained and the method for distribut- H ing questionnaires were requested and discussed with each of the 18 nursing deans and directors. The questionnaire package was distributed to 517 nursing faculty through each program's internally developed mechanism for questionnaire distribution.
Phone calls were made to make sure questionnaires ^ were received to the programs or the faculty. An express mail-stamped envelope was provided for subjects to return the completed questionnaires directly to the first author. A variety of follow-up methods were employed by the first author to remind subjects to return the completed questionnaires (e.g., the follow-up postcard reminder, phone calls, colleague's reminding, and the first author's presentation of the study in the faculty meeting). Usable questionnaires were returned by 233 subjects. The effective response rate was 46%, which was good considering the impact of Taiwanese culture and sensitive nature of the research topic. The return rate was also higher than the general mailed response rate of 30% Waltz et al. 1991).
Approval for the study was obtained from the Human Volunteers Research Committee of the University of Maryland at Baltimore. The following strategies for preventing subjects from suffering any emotional distress were undertaken. Questionnaires were answered totally anonymously. Neither participant nor school was identified. All data were analyzed in the aggregate. The study description also expressed that questionnaires were pureIy for research purposes. Scale items were sequenced from less to more sensitive. The amount of time for subjects to respond was flexible and took into consideration the subjects' potential for fatigue, difficulty in concentrating on sensitive information, and the need to express emotions (Waltz, Strickland, & Lenz, 1991). Scales were sequenced from less to more sensitive scales. No deadline for data collection was set to allow subjects emotional recovery time and to meet their other demands and needs.
Summary for Hierarchical Regression Model: Satisfaction with Extent Job Meets Various Individual Needs (N = 122)
RESULTS OF THE STUDY
Descriptions of Data Characteristics and Sample
Data obtained from the MLQ Form 5-45, NFSQ, MSQ, and demographic questionnaires were screened and analyzed using univariate statistics, ¿-test, chi-square, and hierarchical multiple regression in the statistical package SPSS for Windows program. Statistical assumptions were checked. If necessary, dummy coding and data transformations were performed. Univariate statistics were used to describe the sample. The largest number of the respondents (n = 106) ranged between 23 to 30 years of age. The mean age was 33.4 years (SD = 7.021). Most respondents were instructors (57%); had spent less than 1 year with the dean/director (52%); worked in an associate degree program (66%); worked in a private school (94%); had a master's degree (56%); had clinical experiences for 1 to 2 years (24%); were more than 1 year but less than 3 years in current teaching job (25%); and were married (59%).
The t-test and chi-square were used to examine the homogeneity between subjects with complete data sets and subjects without complete data sets. There were 111 respondents (48%) who had incomplete data sets, and 122 respondents (52%) who had complete data sets. No significant differences were found between the two groups on each demographic variable, independent variable, and dependent variable (p >.05). Homogeneity was found. The characteristics and perceptions of leadership styles and job satisfaction for the 122 subjects with complete data sets were similar to those for the 111 subjects with incomplete data sets. Therefore, only the 122 subjects with complete data sets were used in the data analysis. The results for these subjects with complete data sets were representative of the 233 respondents.
Results for Research Hypotheses
Hierarchical multiple regression was used for partialing out some major demographic variables to examine the leadership predictors for job satisfaction. The research hypotheses were partially supported. As shown in Table 1, after controlling for characteristics of institution, marital status, highest educational degree earned, and prior clinical experience, contingent reward significantly and positively predicted satisfaction with the extent to which the job met various individual needs (Beta = .642, p <.001) and active management-by-exception significantly and negatively predicted satisfaction with the extent to which the job met various individual needs (Beta = -.211, p <.05). Both leadership factors accounted for a significant portion of variance in satisfaction with the extent to which the job met various individual needs (R2 change = 30%, F change(2, 115) = 27.25, p <.001).
As shown in Table 2, after controlling for academic rank, length of time spent with the leader, type of program, and length of time spent in the present teaching job, idealized influence (Beta = 4.84, p <.001), intellectual stimulation (Beta = .239, p <.05), and contingent reward (Beta = .269, p <.05) leadership styles significantly and positively predicted satisfaction with leadership style, but active management-by-exception leadership style (Beta ~ -.265,P <.001) significantly and negatively predicted satisfaction with leadership style. All leadership styles accounted for a significant portion of variance in satisfaction with leadership style (Rp 2 change = 58%, F change (4, 113) = 52.85, p <.001). No influential outlier and no multicollinearity were found.
The findings indicated that nursing deans and nursing directors displaying contingent reward leadership style more frequently produced a higher level of faculty satisfaction with the extent to which the job met the various individual needs and a higher level of faculty satisfaction with leadership style. Also, nursing deans and nursing directors displaying idealized influence and intellectual stimulation leadership styles more frequently produced a higher level of satisfaction with leadership style for nursing faculty. However, nursing deans and nursing directors displaying an active management-by-exception leadership style more frequently produced a lower level of faculty satisfaction with the extent to which the job met various individual needs and a lower level of faculty satisfaction with leadership style.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Findings demonstrated that contingent reward, idealized influence, and intellectual stimulation were significant and positive predictors for job satisfaction. The findings support the theory. In previous studies by Kirby et al. (1992) and Seltzer et al. (1990), Idealized influence was the only significant and positive predictor. According to the theory, subordinate satisfaction was most enhanced when supervisors praised and rewarded subordinates for their positive performance as well as reproached them for unacceptable work. Such satisfaction was not present if rewards were not contingent on their performance in past studies. Contingent reward leadership behaviors could also contribute indirectly to improved satisfaction with supervision by reducing role ambiguities and role conflicts. The idealized influence leader articulates an ideology that enhances goal clarity, focus, and value. Reverence and trust are generated by the followers in the leader resulting in exaggerated follower energization, thus contributing to the transformational process, in which the subordinate's needs were expanded by focusing on transcendental interests, and/or by altering or widening the subordinate's level of needs on MasloVs hierarchy. The intellectual stimulation leader's alertness to problems, diagnosis, and the generation of solutions are communicated to followers symbolically, by means of vivid imagery and simplified, articulate language for easier comprehension and heightened attention. These in turn enhance follower role clarity and acceptance to contribute to the transformational process (Bass, 1985).
Summary for Hierarchical Multiple Regression Model: Satisfaction with Leadership Style (N= 122)
Findings for the current study also demonstrated that active management-by-exception was a significant and negative predictor for job satisfaction for Taiwanese faculty that supports the theory. Bass (1985) indicated that management-by-exception tended to be more ineffective but was required in certain situations. If followers succeed in complying with clarified standards, they may experience increased self-esteem and self-reinforcement. If followers fail to comply with clarified standards and the leader attributes the failure to a lack of motivation, they are likely to be reprimanded leading to hostility, apathy, anxiety, and lowered self-esteem. In turn, there will be a reduction in self-reinforced effort and interference with the efforts of followers to comply.
Nursing deans and directors should actively implement intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and contingent reward leadership styles. They should also avoid using an active management-by-exception leadership style. If used, processes should be put in place to mediate potentially negative influences. For example, if nursing faculty fail to comply with clarified standards, nursing deans or directors should not attribute the failure to nursing faculty's lack of motivation. Other nonsignificant leadership style predictors (i.e., individualized consideration, passive management-by-exception, inspirational motivation, and laissez-faire) may be due to their indirect effects on job satisfaction. Since most of the respondents had spent less than 1 year with the dean/director, the indirect effects may be slower to be felt (Yukl, 1994).
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION
The study guided by transformational versus transactional leadership theory offered a valid contribution to nursing academic leadership in associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan. Nursing deans and directors should create leadership structures that reinforce idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and contingent reward leadership characteristics and quality to establish a satisfied work force. For example, idealized influence nursing deans or nursing directors could consider the needs of nursing faculty over their own personal needs and share risk with nursing faculty. They should be role models for the nursing faculty and display behaviors that engender admiration, respect, and trust in the nursing faculty. Intellectual stimulation nursing deans and nursing directors could encourage nursing faculty's creativity and critical thinking ability in solving problems. They could also encourage nursing faculty to try new approaches in performing teaching, service, and research. They should not criticize nursing faculty's ideas and should not publicly criticize individual nursing faculty's mistakes. Contingent reward nursing deans and nursing directors could reward nursing faculty's good performance and recognize nursing faculty's accomplishments. They could praise teaching, service, and research that is well done and recommend pay increases, holiday increases, bonuses, and promotion. They could set goals with nursing faculty; clarify what performance is needed to reach the goals; and tell inexperienced nursing faculty what they did right, how they feel about it, and encourage more of the same. These leaders could also tell experienced nursing faculty what they specifically are doing wrong and how they feel about it but reassure them that they are still valued as persons. However, nursing deans or directors should not automatically attribute nursing faculty's failure to comply with clarified standards to lack of motivation. A leadership training program that emphasizes idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and contingent reward leadership styles should be provided to prepare effective nursing academic leaders for Taiwan.
LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
One major limitation was that the convenience sample of 517 nursing faculty in 18 associate and baccalaureate degree programs in Taiwan may not have been representative of the target population. The second major limitation was that the response rate of 46% may diminish the representativeness of the sample. The third limitation was the cross-sectional design. The fourth limitation was that the subjects were identified by nursing deans and directors. Subsequent empirical work should seek to replicate this study using a random sampling procedure and focus on increasing the study response rate and decreasing the selection bias by using a complete roster of nursing faculty. Similar issues could be explored through the use of longitudinal designs to better determine indirect effects. A qualitative approach could be used to understand nursing faculty's perceptions and expectations about leadership styles in depth and explore the influence process of leadership styles on job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
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Summary for Hierarchical Regression Model: Satisfaction with Extent Job Meets Various Individual Needs (N = 122)
Summary for Hierarchical Multiple Regression Model: Satisfaction with Leadership Style (N= 122)