Journal of Nursing Education

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The Effect of a Clinical Practicum on Undergraduate Nursing Students' Self-Efficacy for Community-Based Family Nursing Practice

Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, RN, PhD; Heather Spenec Laschinger, RN, PhD; Yvette Laforet-Fliesser, RN, MScN; Cathy Ward-Griffin, RN, MScN; Sherry Foran, RN, MScN

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Providing family nursing care using a collaborative practice model presents a challenge to undergraduate students and to faculty who structure their learning experiences. A pre-test-post-test design was used to assess the impact of a 13-week family nursing clinical practicum on the perceived self-efficacy of two groups of nursing students in three areas: knowledge related to family nursing, home visiting, and collaborative practice. Students completed the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE) at the beginning of the academic year and 4 and 8 months later to coincide with the timing of the practicum for each group (fall or winter term). A two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant group X time effect (λ=.80, p<.001). Students' self-efficacy differed significantly by group at time 2 only (t=4.3,p<.001), supporting the positive effects of the clinical practicum on students' self-efficacy. Consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986) theory, students rated actual performance of family nursing skills in a clinical setting as the most important source of efficacy information. Implications for designing meaningful clinical experiences in family nursing are discussed.

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Providing family nursing care using a collaborative practice model presents a challenge to undergraduate students and to faculty who structure their learning experiences. A pre-test-post-test design was used to assess the impact of a 13-week family nursing clinical practicum on the perceived self-efficacy of two groups of nursing students in three areas: knowledge related to family nursing, home visiting, and collaborative practice. Students completed the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE) at the beginning of the academic year and 4 and 8 months later to coincide with the timing of the practicum for each group (fall or winter term). A two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant group X time effect (λ=.80, p<.001). Students' self-efficacy differed significantly by group at time 2 only (t=4.3,p<.001), supporting the positive effects of the clinical practicum on students' self-efficacy. Consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986) theory, students rated actual performance of family nursing skills in a clinical setting as the most important source of efficacy information. Implications for designing meaningful clinical experiences in family nursing are discussed.

Current health policy is clearly supportive of providing community-based programs and services and nurses have a long-standing history of providing these services, often to families in the home setting. A key element in the shift to community-based care is an emphasis on strengthening the ability of individuals and groups to take responsibility for their health. Within this context, interest in implementing a collaborative practice model in which the nurse and family are partners in the developing behaviors conducive to healthy living has arisen (Allen, 1977, 1983, 1986). This approach contrasts sharply with the traditional model in which the nurse is viewed as the expert who directs the process with limited family input (Allen, 1986). The development of skills necessary for providing family nursing care in the home setting using a collaborative model presents a challenge for both undergraduate nursing students and faculty.

Bandura's notion of self-efficacy, a belief in one's ability to perform a particular behavior, has emerged as an important concept that is proposed to shape both acquisition and performance of behaviors and is necessary for competent functioning (Bandura, 1986). Judgments of self-efficacy can be affected by teaching practices yet relatively little attention has been given to understanding the influence of various learning experiences on the development of self-efficacy for clinical practice skills in nursing students. Identifying learning experiences that promote the development of self-efficacy for nursing skills may assist faculty in designing effective methods of developing clinical competence. In this study, the impact of learning experiences provided in a 13- week family nursing clinical experience on undergraduate nursing students' self-efficacy to work collaboratively with families in the home setting was examined.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

According to Bandura (1977, 1986), self-efficacy or an individual's perceived ability to perform a specific behavior, is a significant predictor of performance of that behavior. Self-efficacy expectations determine an individual's decision to engage in a behavior, the amount of effort to be expended and the degree of persistence at the task. Perceptions of self-efficacy are dynamic and are developed in response to information from four sources: 1) performance accomplishments (actually performing a behavior), 2) vicarious observation (seeing another person perform a behavior), 3) verbal persuasion (encouragement aimed at pointing out one's capabilities) and 4) emotional arousal (physiological states, such as anxiety or fatigue, that influence how people judge their capabilities). Of each of these sources of information, performance is proposed to exert the strongest influence on self-efficacy expectations.

Several researchers in the general education literature have reported positive correlations between self-efficacy expectations and achievement (Lent, Brown, & Larkin, 1984, 1986; Lent, Larkin & Brown, 1987; Schunk, 1981, 1984, 1985; Siegel, Galassi, & Ware, 1985; Thomas, Iventosch, & Rohwer, 1987). Consistent with these findings, Chako and Huba (1991) found self-efficacy to be directly related to academic achievement in a sample of 134 first year nursing students enrolled in a nursing theory course. The explanation for this relationship is that when students face difficulties, those with higher self-efficacy expectations will expend extra effort and persist longer than those who doubt their capabilities (Bandura & Schunk, 1981; Brown & Inouye, 1978; Schunk, 1982).

According to Redman (1985) and Schunk (1985), judgments of self-efficacy can be affected by teaching practices. Thomas, Spiridigliossi, Borges, and Dinas (1989) established that completing a microcounseling course significantly enhanced the self-efficacy perceptions of 46 students enrolled in a master's level counseling psychology course. Similar findings were obtained by Munson, Stadulis, and Munson (1986) in a study of 54 recreation students. Recently, Foran (1994) compared the effects of two different approaches to teaching helping relationship skills, microcounseling and independent study, on the self-efficacy and performance of helping relationship skills of 57 freshman baccalaureate nursing students using a two-group pre-post-test design. In both groups, students' self-efficacy and performance increased significantly following the educational module with no differences found between the two groups. Consistent with Bandura's theory, actual performance of these skills in a practice setting was perceived to be the most important source of self-efficacy information for these students. Although Foran (1994) also observed a positive relationship between self-efficacy and performance in her study, the relationship was not significant. Significant relationships between self-efficacy and performance of counseling skills (Munson, Stadulis, & Munson, 1986) and communication skills (Johnson, Baker, Kopala, Kiselica, & Thompson, 1989) have been reported in other studies of students receiving counseling training, although the magnitude of the correlations was low.

Previous studies have provided support for the effects of teaching strategies on the development of student selfefficacy, as well as the positive influence of self-efficacy on academic performance, although only two of these studies (Chako & Huba, 1991; Foran, 1994) was conducted with nursing students. Whether some teaching strategies are more effective than others in facilitating the development of self-efficacy for different practice skills in nursing students is not clear. Given the theorized relationship between self-efficacy and performance, this in knowledge is a necessary prerequisite for designing learning experiences that contribute to building clinical competence.

RELATED RESEARCH ON COLLABORATIVE LEARNING IN NURSING EDUCATION

Despite increasing interest in collaborative approaches to nursing care, little attention has been directed toward examining teaching strategies that prepare students to work collaboratively with families in the home setting. No reports of studies were found in which the development of student nurse-client collaboration was examined. A few authors, however, have described and evaluated educational approaches thought to facilitate collaborative learning among nursing students. One such teaching strategy, multiple assignment, involves referring a group of students to one client. Several studies (Delorey, 1972; Olson & Hare, 1985; Saxon, 1975; Warner, Ford-Gilboe, Laforet-Fliesser, Olson & Ward-Griffin, 1994) have investigated student learning outcomes associated with this approach. In each of these studies, greater cooperation and collaboration among students were found to be benefits of a team approach. Laschinger, Locke and Stutsky (1992) found similar learning outcomes for a collaborative approach to learning the nursing research process. None of these studies examined self-efficacy in the context of collaborative learning.

Although the notion of preparing students for home visiting has been addressed recently by several authors (Barrett, 1982; Berg & Helgeson, 1984; Long & Endress, 1982), only one study of student experiences with home visiting was found. In an exploratory study, Davis and Deatrick (1988) identified expectations and evaluations of 34 senior nursing students prior to and following initial home visits to families. Content analysis of the data revealed that students were anxious and insecure in the home visitor role, but were positive about the visit when they perceived that a therapeutic relationship with the family had been established. Factors identified by students as most helpful in preparing for home visits included: previous clinical experience with clients similar to those being visited, watching videotapes, joint home visiting with community health nurses, and instructor support. Based on the results of this study, the authors proposed a variety of educational experiences to increase student self-efficacy for home visiting and identified the need to examine the effectiveness of these strategies in future research.

Table

FIGUREStudy Design(X=clinical practicum in family nursing)

FIGURE

Study Design

(X=clinical practicum in family nursing)

HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Given that learning opportunities present in a family nursing practicum provide various sources of efficacy information, the following hypothesis and research questions were posed based upon Bandura's (1977, 1986) theory:

Main Hypothesis

Students' self-efficacy in community-based family nursing practice will increase following completion of the family nursing clinical experience.

Research Questions

1. Which sources of self-efficacy information do students find most helpful in increasing their self-efficacy in family nursing practice?

2. What are the relationships between selected demographics (age, gender, education, prior experience) and students' self-efficacy expectations?

METHOD

Design

In the baccalaureate nursing program in which the study took place, the curriculum was designed to rotate half of the third year class through either a community family nursing practicum or a hospital-based maternalchild practicum in each semester. Not only were these clinical experiences conducted in different settings (hospital vs. community) but each had a somewhat distinct focus: the maternal-child practicum was limited to young families with children and stressed the individual family member within the context of the family while family systems nursing using a collaborative approach with families across the life cycle was the focus in the family nursing practicum.

Because of the nature of the clinical arrangements, the timing of the clinical experience varied within the group of eligible participants creating two naturally occurring groups of approximately even size- those who engaged in the family nursing clinical experience in the fall term (group 1) and those who had this experience in the winter term (group 2). Therefore, a two-group, pre-test/post-test design was used to examine the effects of the clinical practicum (X) on the self-efficacy of nursing students within each group over time and between the groups based upon the timing of their experiences. Consistent with the main hypothesis in this study, it was anticipated that students in both groups would have similar ratings of self-efficacy before either group had completed the practicum (time 1) and after both groups had completed the practicum (time 3). However, self-efficacy scores for group 1 were expected to be higher than those for group 2 at time 2 only, since group 2 students had not completed the practicum (Figure). Therefore, at time 2, group 2 acts as a control group.

Initially, students were randomly assigned to either group 1 or 2; however, several changes in the group assignment were necessary to accommodate special needs of students to participate in the experience at a particular time resulting in non-random comparison groups.

The Family Nursing Practicum

In the family nursing clinical experience, students worked with a fellow student partner to provide nursing care for two families in the community. Referrals were provided from family practice teams consisting of a family physician and nurse, and in some cases, other health care professionals such as medical students/residents and social workers. Students worked in collaboration with the referral center while providing nursing care. Student teams were also part of a larger clinical group, consisting of 10-12 students and one clinical instructor who facilitated their learning. Regardless of the timing of the clinical experience (fall or winter term), all students participated in a year-long family nursing theory course designed to complement the clinical course.

A variety of learning experiences designed to provide different sources of efficacy information were integrated into the clinical practicum. Although learning experiences may have provided more than one source of efficacy information, each was categorized according to the primary source in information provided. Students were exposed to performance information by actually making home visits to families on approximately a weekly basis over the term. Experiences that provided vicarious observation included: observing an experienced public health nurse, the student's partner and instructor interacting with families during home visits, reading literature that described the subjective experiences of families dealing with a variety of health issues and the roles nurses assumed in these situations, and participating in role plays and exercises in which students practiced particular skills important to collaborative family nursing practice (e.g., facilitative communication strategies, conducting an effective home visit, identifying interventions strategies for a case situation) in a simulated laboratory setting. Because students regularly interacted with a variety of individuals whom they could call upon as resources for their learning, they had many opportunities to receive verbal persuasion from a variety of sources. Partners were a frequent source of feedback as students worked intimately with their partners to plan and provide nursing care. Feedback from other peers was provided in weekly laboratory sessions as well as conference groups in which students were encouraged to process their work with families in group discussion. Instructor feedback was provided on at least a weekly basis through written comments in the student's reflective journal, as well as in discussions that occurred in clinical conference, following shared home visits or at office appointments. Feedback was provided by members of the family practice team at team meetings at least twice during the practicum during which students discussed their nursing practice with each family.

Table

TABLE 1Sample Items from the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE)

TABLE 1

Sample Items from the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE)

Sample and Setting

A convenience sample of 63 undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students from a population of 70 students enrolled in a third-year family nursing course at a university in Ontario agreed to participate in the study (90% response rate). Approximately one-half (n=34) of the 63 students who initially volunteered for this study completed the FNSE at all three data collection times. The majority of subjects were full-time students (95.2%). Approximately three-quarters of these were enrolled in the basic degree program and the remainder were postRN students.

The subjects ranged in age from 20 to 45 years of age with a mean of 24.6 years (SD=6.16). Approximately onethird of both basic and post-RN students reported that they had previously worked in a nursing position which involved making home visits. Post-RN students reported an average of 8.2 years of nursing experience (SD=7.5), although the range was between 0 and 24 years.

No significant differences were found between groups in terms of student status (full-time or part-time), program (basic or post-RN), age, RNs' years of experience, or previous work experience making home visits for both basic and post-RN students. The two groups were, thus, homogeneous on demographic variables which may have had an impact on family nursing self-efficacy.

Measurement

Since self-efficacy is specific to particular behaviors, the FNSE was developed by the investigators to measure student self-efficacy for skills required in communitybased family nursing practice. Consistent with Bandura's approach to measurement, Part I of the FNSE measures students' perceived confidence in performing a series of behaviors related to family nursing practice on a 4-point Likert scale from "completely lacking in confidence" (1) to "very confident" (4). Twenty-four items are arranged in three subscales related to: 1) knowledge base (5 items), 2) home visiting (6 items) and 3) collaborative family nursing practice skills (13 items). Examples of items are found in Table 1. Total and subscale scores are obtained by summing and averaging the scores of applicable items, resulting in a value which lies in the original range of the scale (1-4).

Items on the Part I of the FNSE were developed from a review of the literature and from the expertise of faculty involved in the family nursing course. Items were generated and refined until consensus had been reached regarding the format and inclusion of each item. Each faculty member had expertise related to collaborative family nursing practice and, therefore, this process provided evidence of content validity of the scale. Items related to collaborative practice were designed to reflect characteristics of a particular method of nursing families, called situation-responsive nursing, proposed in the Developmental Health Model (Allen 1983, 1986). Originally developed by Moyra Allen and others at McGiIl University School of Nursing, this model has also been referred to in the literature as the McGiIl Model (Gottlieb & Rowat, 1987), the Allen Model (Kravitz & Frey, 1989) and the Developmental Health Model (Ford-Gilboe, 1994). Both theoretical and practice experiences in family nursing in the program under study are based upon concepts from the Developmental Health Model (DHM). Key features of situation-responsive nursing, the practice approach advocated in the DHM, that are tapped by the FNSE include: a view of family as client, development of a collaborative relationship between the nurse and family, an exploratory process of assessment, and a focus on family potential rather than deficits.

Table

TABLE 2Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy at Three Time Points (n=34)

TABLE 2

Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy at Three Time Points (n=34)

In Part II of the FNSE, 11 learning opportunities currently present in the family nursing practicum are listed. These experiences represent three of the four sources of efficacy information described by Bandura (1977). Students were asked to rate on a 4-point Likert scale the degree to which each of the learning experiences assisted them in increasing their confidence in nursing families.

Pilot testing of the FNSE with a small sample of students (n=12) who were enrolled in the clinical practicum in the summer prior to the study resulted in subscale alpha reliabilities ranging from .74 to .89. A few items were modified to increase clarity based upon feedback received from students in the pilot sample. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients were computed for total and subscale scores on Part I at each of three data collection points in the current study. The following ranges were obtained: .89-.96 for the total scale, .67-.85 for the knowledge subscale, .89-.9I for the home visiting subscale and .87-. 95 for the collaborative practice subscale. At time 1, the largest response rate of the three measurement points in this study, subscale scores were found to be moderately correlated with each other (r=.32-.57).

Data Collection Procedures

Students in each group received an explanation of the aims of the study and the extent of involvement required of them during class time. Participation was voluntary and all students were asked to complete the Part I of the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE) at three points in time: at the beginning of fall term (time 1: September), at the end of fall term (time 2: December), and at the end of winter term (time 3: April). All students completed a brief demographic questionnaire at time 1 only. Part II of the FNSE was completed only once immediately following the completion of the practicum (time 2 for group 1, time 3 for group 2).

Students were asked to place the last four digits of their student identification number on the questionnaire to permit post-test matching of responses. Students were assured of the confidentiality of their responses and their right to withdraw from the study at any time. Return of the completed questionnaires constituted consent to participate in the study. Ethical approval for the study was received from the university ethics review board at the study site.

RESULTS

Main Hypothesis

A Two-Factor Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the effects of two independent variables (group and time) on FNSE scores at three points in time (T1, T2, T3). Four separate analyses were conducted using total and subscales FNSE scores as the dependent variables.

For total FNSE scores, a significant group effect was found, F(1,32)=8.01, p=.008), indicating that the groups differed on family nursing self-efficacy at least one time period. A strong significant time effect was also found, F(2,64)=25.5, p=.000, indicating that self-efficacy increased over time regardless of group. The interaction of group by time was also significant (?=.795, ?=. 029) suggesting that total FNSE scores increased differentially by group over time. Simple effects tests were performed to compare the group FNSE means for each time period. FNSE scores differed significantly by group at time 2 only, lending support to the main hypothesis (Table 2).

Separate ANOVAs, conducted using each of the FNSE subscales at three points in time resulted in a different pattern of results (Table 3). Interaction effects were not significant for any of these three analyses, although the results were approaching significance for the collaborative practice subscale (λ=. 843, p=. 07). Strong significant time effects were found for all three subscales, suggesting that student self-efficacy related to knowledge, F(2,64)=28.5, p=<.001, home visiting, F(2,64)=14.9, p<.001, and collaborative practice, F(2,64)=21.0, p<.001, increased significantly over the school year. Groups effects were significant for two subscales, home visiting, F(1,32)=5.9, p=. 02, and collaborative practice, F(1,32)=5.3, p=.03, with the effects for knowledge approaching significance, F(1,32)=3.6, p=.07.

Table

TABLE 3Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Subscales at Three Points in Time (n=34)

TABLE 3

Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Subscales at Three Points in Time (n=34)

Question 1

Mean ratings for the helpfulness of specific learning activities in increasing students' self-efficacy were computed from scores on Part II of the FNSE. Each learning activity was categorized according to the most prominent source of efficacy information which it provided. Data from each group were examined separately as these were collected at different time periods.

In both groups, students' ratings of the helpfulness of all activities were high, (r=2.5 to 3.6 on a 4-point scale), indicating that students considered all activities to be helpful in increasing their self-efficacy. As depicted in Table 4, the groups were consistent on some ratings of specific learning activities. Across the groups, students identified making home visits, and reading literature as among the most helpful experiences and participating in role plays and receiving feedback from the family practice team and instructor as the least helpful in increasing their self-efficacy. Interestingly, both groups rated role playing lowest as a source of efficacy information.

In examining the groups separately, there were clear differences in students' rankings of learning experiences. Students in group 1 felt that the opportunity to observe a Public Health Nurse (PHN) and instructor in actual clinical situations was most helpful in increasing their selfefficacy. On the other hand, group 2 students felt that opportunities to observe and receive feedback from a competent peer were most helpful. Thus, there appear to be group differences in the main sources of efficacy information which students identified as helpful, with those in group 1 preferring the instructor and PHN and those in group 2 preferring peers.

Table

TABLE 4Categories, Means and Ranks of Learning Opportunities of Each Group by Source of Efficacy Information

TABLE 4

Categories, Means and Ranks of Learning Opportunities of Each Group by Source of Efficacy Information

In both groups, the pattern of student rankings of the learning experiences lend some support to Bandura's assertion that performance is the strongest source of selfefficacy information, followed by observation and persuasion. However, further study is needed to examine this proposition more definitively.

Question 2

At time 1, age was positively correlated with knowledge self-efficacy (r=.30, p=.02) and home visiting selfefficacy (r=.25, p=.05). Previous experience making home visits was positively related to home visiting self-efficacy for basic students (r=.37,p=.01), but not for post-RN students (r=.39, p=. 13). However, neither age nor previous home visiting experience were correlated with any selfefficacy measures (total or subscale) at times 2 and 3 when students had gained some direct experience through the clinical practicum. No relationship was found between self-efficacy and either program of study (basic or post-RN) or post-RN's years of working experience at any of the three data collection points.

DISCUSSION

This study contributes to knowledge of Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as it relates to learning to nurse families in the community. Consistent with the theory, exposure to the sources of efficacy information present in the learning experiences of the practicum, resulted in increased self-efficacy for collaborative family nursing practice skills. Further, participating in the clinical practicum increased students' self-efficacy regardless of previous experience, age, or program of study. In this sense, direct experience was a more potent condition for learning than existing student characteristics.

The study findings also support Bandura's contention that performance has the strongest influence on self-efficacy expectations; making home visits to families was perceived as the most helpful source of efficacy information by all students, followed by learning experiences that provided vicarious observation and verbal persuasion as sources of efficacy information.

Although this general pattern emerged, differences in students' ratings of the helpfulness of learning experiences in increasing their self-efficacy are of interest. Students who engaged in the practicum early in the academic year looked to the instructor and PHN for efficacy information, while those in the second term relied more on peers for feedback and modeling. Perhaps the maturity gained over the year facilitated students looking to peers as legitimate sources of learning. In addition, it is possible that purposeful discussions of the application of the collaborative family nursing model during weekly classroom sessions over the school year may have influenced students' perceptions of the value of using peers as resources for learning.

The results also suggest that students can develop selfefficacy related to collaborative family nursing practice in a relatively short period of time given appropriate learning opportunities. Students in this study were in the process of making a shift from a more traditional nursing approach to a collaborative family nursing model. Although actual performance of behaviors was not measured in this study, according to Bandura's theory, selfefficacy would be expected to be related to performance. This relationship has been observed in other populations. Further study is needed to establish this relationship in nursing students who are developing collaborative family nursing skills as well as other behaviors necessary for competent clinical practice.

IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING EDUCATION

The results of this study have implications for nurse educators. For nurse educators planning learning experiences for students learning to nurse families in a community setting, the results of this study highlight the need to build in many opportunities for actual performance. This may include collaborative learning through the use of peers and expert practitioners as role models and sources of feedback. Nursing instructors and preceptors working with students in family nursing situations need to be aware of the impact of role modeling on student learning and self-efficacy expectations. In planning learning experiences, efforts should be made to ensure that excellent role models are selected to work with students to maximize student learning in family nursing settings.

Reading literature related to families' experiences of various health and illness situations may also help students to visualize possible scenarios and develop strategies to deal with them. Learning from this source could be augmented through clinical conferences or class discussions in which students share their learning from readings of family responses to health situations.

Finally, nurse educators should be aware of the value of verbal expressions of positive reinforcement of student learning in community family nursing settings. Positive feedback from a variety of credible sources, e.g., instructor, public health nurse, family practice nurse, competent peers, are easily available sources of encouragement for students learning to nurse families in community health settings.

In summary, this study used Bandura's theory of selfefficacy to examine the effects of a family nursing practicum on third-year baccalaureate nursing students' self-efficacy for nursing families in a community health setting. The results were supportive of Bandura's theory and suggest theory-based implications for nurse educators. Further research is warranted in samples of nursing students who are learning diverse sets of skills to further test the applicability of self-efficacy theory in nursing education. In particular, investigations that examine the relationships between teaching strategies, self-efficacy expectations and competency in performing clinical skills are necessary for planning and evaluating effective learning experiences.

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FIGURE

Study Design

(X=clinical practicum in family nursing)

TABLE 1

Sample Items from the Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (FNSE)

TABLE 2

Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy at Three Time Points (n=34)

TABLE 3

Group Means for Family Nursing Self-Efficacy Subscales at Three Points in Time (n=34)

TABLE 4

Categories, Means and Ranks of Learning Opportunities of Each Group by Source of Efficacy Information

10.3928/0148-4834-19970501-06

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