Patricia O'Kane raises some important issues in her article describing faculty and administrator perceptions of decision making* She links participatory management to favorable job attitudes and describes some ways that administrators can promote satisfaction and career commitment while decreasing tensions.
These ideas are elaborated by Alan Guskin in his discussion of ways administrators facilitate quality teaching (A.E. Guskin [Ed.] . New directions for teaching and learning: The administrator's role in effective teaching, no. 5. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass). He draws attention to four important factors that help faculty members to feel satisfied in their role. These factors are:
Recent reductions in student enrollments, and substantial budget cuts have caused a lowered sense of security among many faculty members. Faculty involvement in budget decisions can help to re-establish feelings of security.
When faculty members feel a sense of ownership in a university or college they tend to make better decisions. As professionals, faculty are integrated into a system of higher education because they share a common set ofnorms and goals. A governance system that emphasizes the role of the faculty member as a professional person responsible for the key elements of the institution's mission will help to provide a strong sense of ownership for the faculty.
There is clear evidence that academic quality is a key factor in developing a sense of pride in faculty. Five indicators of quality are:
1. Individuals receiving tenure and promotion are deserving of it.
2. Academic standards for students are maintained even when there is lowered student demand for the education.
3. Programs created and implemented by the faculty are recognized by others outside of the institution as desirable.
4. Teaching quality and scholarly endeavors are held in high esteem.
5. Public pronouncements of the institution reflect an emphasis on quality.
* Intellectual Vitality
Intellectual vitality is the single most significant characteristic of a faculty and is reflected in teaching and scholarship Through the partnership of an active and involved faculty, and a caring and supportive administration, the above characteristics can be achieved.