|Ashida (2008) Report 1 of 2||Definition: Not stated
Description: A function of a social network (p 873)
“subjective psychological component…Individuals' appraise their social relationships and assess the extent to which they feel socially connected…A lack of social connectedness may be experienced as feelings of loneliness and a desire for companionship” (p 874–875)||2 items
---the frequency of respondents' feelings of loneliness
---the frequency with which respondents wished for more people to spend time with (companionship)
|Ashida (2008) Report 2 of 2||Definition: Not stated
Description: “socially engaged through interconnections with network members, giving a sense of belonging and attachment” (p 43)||2 items
---the frequency of respondents' feelings of loneliness
---the frequency with which respondents wished for more people to spend time with (companionship)
|Buckley (2009)||“the relationships people have with family friends and others” (p 390)
“the interaction of one person with others, his or her community, groups, and the environment, which offers reassurance and contentment.” (p 390)
Description: Not stated||Interview guide included topics on the relationships residents had with family and relatives, friends and the outside world, staff, and other residents.||No—broader assessment of relationships|
|Chaves (2008)||Definition: “the perception of having a meaningful relation or connection with … significant other(s).” (p 1)
Description: “… perceiving meaningful, close, and significant relationships with other human beings.” (p 2)
“…connectedness may occur between two individuals in a dyadic context (e.g., between spouses, best friends) or between an individual and several people in a group context (e.g., bridge group, hiking club).” (p 3)
“Within … the…contexts identified above, connectedness could be experienced in three different ways, e.g., physically, emotionally or cognitively… Experiencing connectedness in a physical way involves the body and physical experiences or activities, e.g., holding hands, touching and making love; …Experiencing connectedness in an emotional way involves experiencing positive and/or negative affective states with someone… e.g., sharing one's feelings such as worries, hopes, joy, and fears with a special person or with a social group of people; Experiencing connectedness in a cognitive way involves conscious mental processes, e.g., having deep discussions and being on the same “wavelength” with a special person or a group of people; …” (pp 3–4)||12 items related to a special person
9 items related to social groups:
---I feel emotionally connected and close with a special person in my life, e.g., spouse, partner, close friend.
---I share my deepest feelings with a special person in my life, e.g., worries, hopes, fears.
---I am satisfied with the amount of emotional connection and closeness I have with a special person.
---I am physically (non-sexually) connected and comfortable with a special person in my life, e.g., hugs, touch.
---I show my physical (non-sexual) connection and comfort with a special person, e.g., give hugs, touch.
---I am satisfied with the amount of physical (non-sexual) connection and comfortableness I have with a special person.
---I am sexually connected and physically celebrate my sexuality with a special person in my life, e.g., sexual intercourse.
---I show my sexual connection and sexual celebration with a special person, e.g., sexual intercourse.
---I am satisfied with the amount of sexual connection I have with a special person.
---I am mentally connected with and understand a special person in my life, e.g., have “deep” discussions, on the same “wavelength.”
---I share my deepest thoughts with a special person in my life, e.g., ideas, beliefs, philosophy.
---I am satisfied with the amount of mental connection and mutual understanding I have with a special person.
---I feel emotionally connected and close with a social group of people, e.g., clubs, dance group, organization.
---I share my deepest feelings with a social group of people, e.g., worries, hopes, fears.
---I am satisfied with the amount of emotional connection and closeness I have with a social group of people.
---I am physically connected and comfortable with a social group of people, e.g., we meet, shake hands, give hugs, pats on back.
---I engage in activities that help me be physically connected and comfortable with a social group, e.g., organizing, driving others, clean-up.
---I am satisfied with the amount of physical connection and comfortableness I have with a social group.
---I am mentally connected with and understand a social group of people, e.g., we have “deep” discussions, on the same “wavelength.”
---I share my deepest thoughts with a social group of people, e.g., my ideas, beliefs, philosophy.
---I am satisfied with the amount of mental connection and mutual understanding I have with a social group.
|Cooney (2014)||Definition: “residents' social relationships, including their continued connection with their community” (p 193)
“encompass relationships with family and friends, other residents, staff and the wider community” (p 193)
Reciprocity in relationships with staff (relationships with other residents not emerging strongly)” (p 195)
Description: Not stated||Not stated||Not applicable|
|Culley (2013)||Definition: Not stated
Description: Not stated||Register Connectedness Scale for Older Adults, subscales: being part of a family (10 items about satisfaction) & having friends (5 items about satisfaction).||No includes some items that measure social contact|
|Daniel (2012)||Definition: “Lack of connectedness to others has been defined in multiple ways, but generally refers to lack of social support, poor integration into a social network, or perceptions of social isolation. We consider lack of connectedness to others to include actual social support and/or perceived social support (i.e., one's subjective sense of connection to others).” (p 288)
Description: Not stated||Not stated||Not applicable|
|Easton Hogg (2014)||Definition: “the presence of quality relationships in which individuals' needs for attachment, social integration, opportunity for nurturance, reassurance of worth, reliable alliance, and guidance, are met.” (p 3)
Description: Not stated||22-item Social Provisions Scale (Russell & Cutrona, 1984)
Six scales: Attachment, social integration, opportunity for nurturance, reassurance of worth, reliable alliance, and guidance regarding current relationship with friends, family members, coworkers, community members, etc:
---I feel that I do not have close personal relationships with other people.
---There is no one I can turn to for guidance in times of stress.
---There are people who enjoy the same social activities I do
---Other people do not view me as competent.
---I feel personally responsible for the well-being of another person.
---I feel part of a group of people who share my attitudes and beliefs.
--I do not think other people respect my skills and abilities.
--If something went wrong, no one would come to my assistance.
--I have close relationships that provide me with a sense of emotional security and well-being.
---There is someone I could talk to about important decisions in my life.
---I have relationships where my competence and skills are recognized.
---There is no one who shares my interests and concerns.
---There is no one who really relies on me for their well-being.
---There is a trustworthy person I could turn to for advice if I were having problems.
---I feel a strong emotional bond with at least one other person.
---There is no one I can depend on for aid if I really need it.
---There is no one I feel comfortable talking about problems with.
---There are people who admire my talents and abilities.
---I lack a feeling of intimacy with another person.
---There is no one who likes to do the things I do.
---There are people I can count on in an emergency.
---No one needs me to care for them.
|No—this scale incudes items that measure social support.|
|Fassberg (2012)||Definition: “the degree of positive involvement with family, friends, and social groups.” (p 723)
“the degree to which older adults are connected to family, friends, and their communities” (p 725)
Description: Not stated||Marital status, Living arrangement, Religion, Frequency of social contact, Social integration, Social support, Relationship discord, Loneliness (Single item: Do you feel lonely?)||No—many social factors are measured|
|Hawkley (2005)||Definition: Three domains of social connectedness:
Isolation: “pervasive sense of aloneness and social dissatisfaction at the Personal level” (p 802)
Relational Connectedness: “social satisfaction at the interpersonal level” (p 803)
Collective connectedness: “social satisfaction at a group level” (p 803)
Description: “individuals' conceptual organization of their relationships to others” (p 798)
“mental representations of loneliness-connectedness appear to originate from three highly related but distinct aspects of the social domain Isolation, Relational Connectedness, and Collective Connectedness” (p 801)
“the conceptual space representing satisfaction with social connectedness” (p 803)||20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale
Isolation: (2) I lack companionship; (3) there is no one I can turn to; (4) I feel alone; (7) I am no longer close to anyone; (8) My interests and ideas are not shared by those around me; (11) I feel left out; (12) My social relationships are superficial; (13) No one really knows me well; (14) I feel isolated from others; (17) I am unhappy being so withdrawn; (18) People are around me but not with me
Relational Connectedness: (10) there are people I feel close to; (15) I can find companionship when I want it; (16) There are people who really understand me; (19) There are people I can talk to; (20) There are people I can turn to
Collective Connectedness: (1) I feel in tune with the people around me; (5) I feel part of a group of friends; (6) I have a lot in common with the people around me; (9) I am an outgoing person||Yes|
|Hawkley (2012)||Definition: Three factors:
“Intimate Connectedness: experiences of social value as an individual…posited to represent deeply-held beliefs about our individual social value” (pp 1–2)
Relational Connectedness: experiences of social value in dyadic friendship relationships…posited to represent feelings of closeness and support” (pp 1–2)
Collective Connectedness: “experiences of collective identity and belonging in a group…posited to represent feelings of group identification and cohesion” pp 1–2
Description: “organized mental representations of our social connections…mental representations of …experiences of social connectedness or loneliness” (p 1)||20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale
Isolation: (2) How often do you feel that you lack companionship?; (3) How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to?; (4) How often do you feel alone?; (7) How often do you feel that you are no longer close to anyone?; (8) How often do you feel that your interests and ideas are not shared by those around you?; (11) How often do you feel left out?; (12) How often do you feel that your relationships with others are meaningless?; (13) How often do you feel that no one really knows you well?; (14) How often do you feel isolated from others?; (17) How often do you feel shy?; (18) How often do you feel that people are around you but not with you?
Relational Connectedness: (10) How often do you feel close to people? (15) How often do you feel you can find companionship when you want it? (16) How often do you feel that there are people who really understand you? (19) How often do you feel that there are people you can talk to? (20) How often do you feel that there are people you can turn to?
Collective Connectedness (1) How often do you feel that you are “in tune” with the people around you? (5) How often do you feel part of a group of friends? (6) How often do you feel that you have a lot in common with the people around you? (9) How often do you feel outgoing and friendly?||Yes|
|Kim (2015)||Definition: Subjective evaluation of social connectedness includes perceived social support, quality of social relations, and loneliness and belongingness.” (p 3)
Description: Not stated||3 items for social participation: asked about participation or involvement in (1) family activities such as eating out, shopping, gardening, etc., (2) other social activities such as meeting with friends or relatives during the past week, and (3) volunteer work during the past week.
2 items for quality of social relations: the level of satisfaction with the participants' close social networks: how satisfied they were with (1) the relationship with their family members, and (2) the number of their friends.||No—for the measure of social participation
Yes—for the measure of quality of social relations|
|Lee (2014)||Definition: “an individual's subjective awareness of interpersonal closeness with people and the social world” (pp 301–302)
Description: “Social connectedness could be perceived as the broader construct that encompasses the various ways of building closeness and relatedness with others.” (p 302)||7 Items of support received in church context|
7 items for support provided to others in church context
--Other than your minister, pastor, or priest, how often does someone in your congregation let you know they love and care for you?
--How often does someone in your congregation talk with you about your private problems and concerns?
--How often does someone in your congregation express interest and concern in your well-being?
--How often does someone in your congregation give you a ride to church services?
--How often does someone in your congregation provide you with transportation to other places, like the grocery store or doctor's office?
--How often does someone in your congregation help you with things that need to be done around your home, such as household chores or yard work?
--How often does someone in your congregation help out when you or a member of your family are ill?
--How often do you show someone in your congregation that you love and care for him/her?
--How often have you talked with someone in your congregation about his/her private feelings and concerns?
--How often have you expressed interest and concern in the well-being of someone in your congregation?
--How often do you provide transportation to church for someone in your congregation?
--How often do you provide transportation for someone in your congregation to other places, like the grocery store or the doctor's office?
--How often do you help someone in your congregation with things that need to be done around his/her home, such as household chores or yard work?
--How often have you helped take care of someone in your congregation when he/she was ill?
|No—measured social support (tangible and emotional) instead of feelings of closeness|
|Marshall (2011)||Definition: “also known as social engagement refers to the strength in the closeness or ties older adults experience through friendships, family, and other relationships.” (p 84)
Description: Not Stated||3 items
--How close do you feel to your church members?
--How close do you feel to your family members?
--How close do you feel to your friends?
|Mellor (2008)||Definition: Not Stated
Description: Not stated||16 item Social Connectedness Scale (Lee and Robins 1995)
Subscale 1, 8 items: measures the extent to which the respondent feels connected to others (e.g., “Even around people I know, I don't feel that I really belong”).
Subscale 2, 8 items: measures the extent to which the respondent feels the need for social reassurance from others. (e.g., “I feel more comfortable when someone is constantly with me”)||Yes—subscale 1
No subscale 2— need for social reassurance may be a different concept|
|Ong (2005)||Definition: “having quality ties to others (p 476)
Description: “positive aspects of social relationships (e.g., affection, attachment, intimacy)” (p 477)||14-item Positive Relations With Others subscale of the Psychological Well-Being Measure (Ryff & Keyes, 1995).
Item examples: “Most people see me as loving and affectionate” and “I know that I can trust my friends, and they know they can trust me.”||No—example suggests that items may also reflect how one feels they are perceived by others|
|Pan (2012)||“a subjective awareness of interpersonal closeness with the social world ...” (p 35)
“This sense of closeness is based on the aggregate experiences with all kinds of relationships, such as parents, friends, peers, strangers, communities, and society… A person struggling to feel connected may feel different and distant from other people.” (p 35)
“a broad definition of social connectedness includes feelings of intimacy with others and belonging to the outside world.” (p 43)
Description: Not stated||Adapted version of the Social Connectedness Scale (Lee and Robins 1995).
One subscale was selected that measured the extent to which the respondent felt connected to others. Examples from this subscale were “Even around people I know, I don't feel that I really belong,” and “I feel so distant from people.”||Yes|
|Register (2010a) Report 1 of 3||Definition: Not stated
Description: “…social connectedness originates intrinsically” (p 465)
“Involvement in meaningful and reciprocal relationships” (p 475)
“Relationships with family and friends were a principal concern for older adults in this study. The older men and women expressed the importance of continued and ongoing companionship and socialization in a variety of ways. The desire and need to be with people was universally expressed. The older adults in this study had a great capacity for giving, sharing, and loving. At the same time, they expressed a need to know that they were loved, cared for, and important to someone.” (p 472)
“One of the married women illustrated the reciprocal nature of relationships. She derived a great deal of pleasure in giving to others… In contrast, a widow, who lived alone, expressed an overwhelming need for companionship in her life.” (p 472)||Not stated||Not applicable|
|Register (2011) Report 2 of 3||Definition: “Connected to others includes human interpersonal relationships that are free of spatial or temporal constraints.” (p 62)
Description: Two critical attributes of social connectedness: Being part of a family: “Seeking ongoing interactions with family members and feeling needed, wanted, and loved by family members” (p 69)
“ Being part of a family is also characterized by wanting to be with one's family, spending time with one's family, talking with a family member, and worrying about a family member.” (p 69)
Having friends: “A variety of activities, thoughts, and feelings older adults engage in that are associated with friendship” (p 69)
“Having friends includes appreciating one's friendships, being with one's friends, and wishing more friends were in close proximity.” (p 69)||10 items about being part of a family;
--Wanted to be with my family
--Felt needed by my family
--Felt loved by my family
--Spent time with my family
--Talked with a family member
--Felt needed by someone
--Wished my family lived closer to me
--Felt wanted by someone
--Felt close to a family member who lives far away
--Worried about a family member
--Felt good about having friends close by
--Wanted to be with friends
--Spent time with a friend
--Felt good about my friendships
--Thought about a friend
--Talked with an old friend
--Wished I had more friends close by
|No—some items refer to contact frequency with family or friends|
|Register (2010b) Report 3 of 3||Definition: “Includes all human interpersonal relationships including, but not limited to, family, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances both living and deceased” (p 56)
Description: Having relationships: being part of a family and having friends (p 58)||Not stated||Not applicable|
|Romero (2004)||Definition: “the degree to which an individual feels interpersonal closeness with his or her social world (e.g. family, friends, peers).” (p 40)
“…reflects a pervasive, internal sense of belonging.” (p 40)
Description: Not stated||20 item Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (Lee, Draper, and Lee 2001); further revised in this study to measure recent social connectedness by adding the qualifier ‘during the past week’||Yes—social assurance is no longer measured as a subscale in this instrument; additional items were added to measure belongingness|
|Semino (1990)||Definition: “the need for social ties and/or attachments” (p 11)
“…experience of connectedness with meaningful or valued sources of [social] attachment” (pp 42–43)
Description: “On the whole, those connections which were difficult to establish and/or sustain did not play a significant role in the lives of these subjects.” (p 84)
“the individual perceptions of the subjects in relation to their view of … their relationships with other people. The value placed on these relationships reflects some commonalties of experience in that the most significant relationships were characterized by a personal connection. This type of connection was usually found with family members or with friends who knew a particular subject pre-institutionalization. However, as in the case of the third and fifth subjects and their respective aide/companions, a personal connection can also incorporate a unique and special connection made during, after, or as a result of institutionalization.” (pp 94–95)
“In general, the values placed on certain connections were reflective of their function in the lives of the subjects in this sample. Connections which were highly valued were those which were sustained despite a subject's entrance into the long-term care institution. People with whom the subjects had these social ties included members of the immediate family such as children, the children's spouses, and grandchildren. Friends outside the institution who made an effort to maintain contact were also highly valued as a source of connection to the outside world. In the case of the third and fifth subjects both of whom did not have family members in the state, a highly valued connection consisted of a special caretaker/friend who knew them on a personal level in addition to attending to their physical needs. The main function of highly valued connections was that these connections helped meet the subjects' normative psychosocial needs for love and belonging (Maslow; cited in Schaie & Willis, 1986). These connections also served to keep three out of the five subjects in touch with their past; namely, the meaningful roles they played in their family structures as mothers and wives.” (p 85)
“Moderately valued connections included impersonal relationships which served an important function in the lives of two of the subjects at the present time. These connections were with the staff of the nursing home who represented these subjects' need for physical care and health supervision. These connections were reflective of these subjects' needs for safety and security … Minimally valued connections included those connections which could not meet the subjects' psychosocial needs for love, belonging, and/or companionship.” (pp 85–86)||Interview guide:
--What contacts did the individual have inside and outside the nursing home?
--Which contacts did the individual value and/or consider meaningful?
--What efforts, if any, did the individual and/or others make to establish and/or maintain these connections? How are these efforts demonstrated?
--Were there any other sources of attachment that provided the individual with a sense of connectedness; such as certain places, ideas, or objects?
--How had the individual's experience of affiliation and/or connection with these sources of attachment changed since coming to the nursing home?
--What were the explanations that the individual gave for the change in connections and/or affiliations?” pp 50–51
|No—questions are broader about contact and efforts to maintain meaningful contact|
|Stanley (2014)||Definition: “Loneliness the subjective experience of feeling socially disconnected from others” (p 394)
Description: “…pets may be a source of social connectedness that buffer against feelings of loneliness” (p 394)
“Social connectedness is often thought of as the presence of meaningful connections with other human beings; however, in some instances, certain older adults may have their need for connectedness met, in part, by owning a pet.” (p 397)||1 item: ‘In the past two weeks, I have felt lonely’||Yes|
|Sun (2012)||Definition:“the extent to which a person participates in relationships with others.” (p 225)
“Individual connectedness referred to a person's subjective psychological assessment of his or her identity as an isolated person or one who is linked closely with others.” (p 226)
“…relational connectedness was a person's sense that he or she belonged to a network of friends and family members: people who were available and supportive.” (p 226)
“Collective connectedness was an elder's perception of social belonging.” (p 226)
Description: Not stated||Individual connectedness: 5 items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, 1996):
--There are people that I talk to
--There are people I can turn to
--I feel alone
--I feel I am no longer close to anybody
--I lack companionship
Collective connectedness:4 items of membership in organizations:
--the average number of people from whom participants could receive assistance in eight different areas: financial assistance, technical advice, caregiving support, making new friends, helping with chores, sharing feelings, resolving family conflicts, and boosting confidence
--4-items adapted from the Social Support Questionnaire (Sarason et al., 1987): satisfaction with the amount of emotional support, advice and information support, help received in times of health problems, and friends made in the retirement community.
6 items of engagement in social activities.
--Do you belong to a social club?
--Do you belong to a religious organization?
--Do you currently engage in volunteer work within the retirement community?
--Do you currently volunteer in a setting outside of your retirement community?
--number of activities that participants did on a regular basis (i.e., sports, playing games, attending workshops, going to cultural events, working on crafts, and attending musical events)
|No—measures social support, and support network size, group membership and social activity engagement|
|Van Orden (2013)||Definition: Psychological connectedness:
“ …low belonging and feeling like a burden on others…indicate the presence of perceived social disconnectedness. Low (or thwarted) belonging is a psychologically painful mental state that results when the fundamental need for social connectedness…is unmet. The need to belong is satisfied by feeling both positively connected to and cared about by others. The need to belong is most easily met by feeling as if one ‘belongs to’ caring relationships that involve frequent, proximal contact. Feelings of loneliness are one indicator that the need to belong is not fully met. Perceived burdensomeness is a mental state characterized by perceptions that one is not making positive contributions to relationships, and in a more extreme manifestation, the belief that others would be “better off if I were gone.” (p 118)
Description: Not stated||15-item Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (Van Orden et al. 2012)
--low belongingness subscale “These days, I feel lonely”
--perceived burdensomeness subscale (e.g. “These days I feel like a burden on the people in my life”)
|Yes—low belongingness subscale
No—feeling like a burden may be slightly a different concept|
|Zelenka (2011)||Definition: “The opposite of loneliness has been defined as “embeddedness,” …and as “feelings of belongingness”; here I call it “perceived social connectedness” or just “social connectedness.” … affective sense of being embedded in a network of social ties…” (p 12)
“a person's sense of being in relationship with others, of having people they can turn to when they need help, of being embedded in one or more social networks, and of being around people they can relate to.” (p 47)
Description: “Reversing the scale so that higher is better can be considered a measure of perceived social connectedness…” (p 60)||11 items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (Russell, 1996) (e.g. How often do you: feel that you are 'in tune' with the people around you? feel isolated from others? have people you can talk to? have people you can turn to? have people who understand you? feel that there are people you feel close to? feel you have a lot in common with friends? feel part of a group?)||Yes|