Journal of Gerontological Nursing

Feature Article 

The Correlation of Social Support and Social Participation of Older Adults in Bandar Abbas, Iran

Neda Amirkhosravi, RN; Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, PhD, RN; Mohammad-Sajjad Lotfi, RN; Masoumeh Hosseinian, RN

Abstract

Social participation is a criterion for successful aging. Research has shown that social participation decreases in older adults. However, the role of social support on older adults’ social participation has received little attention, especially in eastern countries, such as Iran. Using the Social Participation Questionnaire, the relationship between social support and social participation was investigated in 525 Iranian older adults. A correlation was found between social support and social participation of older adults. Older adult women were found to have less social support and social participation compared with men. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(6), 39–47.]

Ms. Amirkhosravi is Nursing Lecturer, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas; Dr. Adib-Hajbaghery is Professor, Trauma Nursing Research Center, Mr. Lotfiis Nursing Lecturer, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, and Mr. Hosseinian is Nursing Lecturer, Department of Management and Health Promotion, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. This study is part of a research thesis (M.A.-H.), and the author recognizes help provided by Kashan University of Medical Sciences and the Medical and Health Deputy of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. The authors also thank the older adults who helped with the study.

Address correspondence to Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, PhD, RN, Professor, Trauma Nursing Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Fifth Kilometer Ravand Road, Kashan, Iran; e-mail: adib1344@yahoo.com.

Received: April 26, 2014
Accepted: December 11, 2014
Posted Online: March 30, 2015

Abstract

Social participation is a criterion for successful aging. Research has shown that social participation decreases in older adults. However, the role of social support on older adults’ social participation has received little attention, especially in eastern countries, such as Iran. Using the Social Participation Questionnaire, the relationship between social support and social participation was investigated in 525 Iranian older adults. A correlation was found between social support and social participation of older adults. Older adult women were found to have less social support and social participation compared with men. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(6), 39–47.]

Ms. Amirkhosravi is Nursing Lecturer, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas; Dr. Adib-Hajbaghery is Professor, Trauma Nursing Research Center, Mr. Lotfiis Nursing Lecturer, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, and Mr. Hosseinian is Nursing Lecturer, Department of Management and Health Promotion, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. This study is part of a research thesis (M.A.-H.), and the author recognizes help provided by Kashan University of Medical Sciences and the Medical and Health Deputy of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. The authors also thank the older adults who helped with the study.

Address correspondence to Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, PhD, RN, Professor, Trauma Nursing Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Fifth Kilometer Ravand Road, Kashan, Iran; e-mail: adib1344@yahoo.com.

Received: April 26, 2014
Accepted: December 11, 2014
Posted Online: March 30, 2015

Medical advances in the last half of the 20th century have led to an increase in life expectancy, increasing the older adult population (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003; Cohen, Preston, & Crimmins, 2011; Knickman & Snell, 2002). Older adults account for more than 600 million individuals of the world population (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2009). According to forecasts, this number will exceed 1 and 2 billion in 2025 and 2050, respectively (Halter, Ouslander, Tinetti, Studenski, & High, 2009).

Increase in life expectancy can be considered the greatest human achievement; however, it has resulted in population aging, which is a major challenge (Halter et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2012; World Health Organization [WHO], 2002). Population aging is a global phenomenon. Some reports indicate that developing countries in Asia are aging faster than other countries (Adib-Hajbaghery, 2011). The rate of increase in the older adult population in these countries is reported to be approximately 3% annually, compared with 1% to 1.3% in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the United States (Adib-Hajbaghery, 2011). The proportion of individuals 60 and older in Iran accounted for 5.4% of the population in 2005 and it is estimated to reach 21.7% by 2050 (Tajvar, Arab, & Montazeri, 2008).

Older adults experience a range of biopsychosocial changes that result in major alterations in their personal and social life. Such changes may not only lead to physical and cognitive disorders, but can also affect social value, self-esteem, and quality of life (Aldwin & Gilmer, 2013; Kemp & Mosqueda, 2004; Lee et al., 2012; Spence, 1989; Whitbourne & Whitbourne, 2010).

The concept of successful aging has attracted attention recently and is considered a major indicator of older adults’ physical, spiritual, mental, and social well-being (Matsuo, Nagasawa, Yoshino, Hiramatsu, & Kurashiki, 2003). According to the WHO, social participation is one key indicator of successful aging. Social participation improves older adults’ independence, quality of life, and personal integrity; maintains their functional ability; and decreases their psychological and cognitive problems (Lee, Jang, Lee, Cho, & Park, 2008; Levasseur, Richard, Gauvin, & Raymond, 2010; Matsuo et al., 2003).

Social participation refers to the organized, voluntary, and conscious process of engagement in recreation, socialization, and cultural, educational, and spiritual activities based on individual interests (WHO, 2007). Such activities promote self-actualization and achievement of personal goals and increase the individual’s power of decision making (Moradi, Fekrazad, Mousavi, & Arshi, 2013). A number of studies have shown that Iranian older adults have inadequate social participation, which continues to decline (Ebrahimi, 2011). This condition is more prevalent in older women (Ebrahimi, 2011). Some cultural-religious beliefs that prohibit women from participating in public and formal social activities and the lack of special institutions and female parks and clubs that facilitate women’s social activities may affect the lower levels of social participation in this population (Almeras, 2007). In a study of social and economic dimensions of aging, Gheysaryan (2009) reported that Iranian older adults’ social participation decreased from 28.5% in 1987 to 22% in 2007. However, during the same time frame, the rate of social participation was more than 38% in Korean older adults (Lee et al., 2012). It should be noted that Iran is a Muslim country, and Islam has put great emphasis on close connections with relatives and respect for parents and older adults (Ali, 2011). Iran’s culture also supports close communication among relatives; therefore, older adults are expected to have higher levels of social support.

Social participation in older age is considered to be largely affected by factors such as age, gender, marital status, health status, income, employment status, life entourage (i.e., individuals who live with the older adult), and level of functional independence (Ahmad & Hafeez, 2011; Asadollahi, Saberi, Tabrizi, & Faraji, 2011; Cachadinha, Branco Pedro, & Fialho, 2011; Cornwell, 2011; Stevens-Ratchford, 2008). The level of social support is one of the factors affecting older adults’ social participation. Social support has been defined as the structure of an individual’s social environment and the tangible, instrumental, and emotional resources the social environment provides (Rodriguez et al., 2008). Social support may also be considered the provision of support, affection, companionship, care, attention, respect, and help for an individual by other individuals or groups, such as family and friends (CDC, 2005; Holmes & Joseph, 2011; Lee & Shehan, 1989).

Studies suggest that social support has positive effects on heart failure and nocturnal blood pressure outcomes (Luttik, Jaarsma, Moser, Sanderman, & van Veldhuisen, 2005; Rodriguez et al., 2008). It has also been reported that social support may decrease anxiety and depression in older adults (Xu & Wei, 2013). Nonetheless, the effect of social support on older adults’ social participation has received little attention. In addition, no studies are available in this regard from Iran. However, it is hypothesized that the level of social support may affect the level of social participation in older adults. Given the cultural differences between Iranian and other Western and Eastern societies, the question remains whether a relationship exists between the levels of social support and social participation of older adults in an Iranian population. Therefore, the current study investigated the relationship between social support and social participation of older adults in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The specific research questions were:

  • What are the mean social support and social participation scores of older adults in Bandar Abbas?
  • What is the difference between older adult men and women in terms of social support and social participation scores?
  • Does a correlation exist between the scores of social support and social participation?
  • How much of the social participation score is predicted by social support and its components?

Method

Study Design and Participants

The current cross-sectional study was conducted in the third quarter of 2013. The study population consisted of community-dwelling older adults ages 60 and older living in Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Sample size was calculated based on a previous study in which the correlation coefficient between age and social participation was 0.171 (Mazloum Khorasani, Noghani, & Khalife, 2012). Based on the type I error of 0.05 and power of 0.80, 350 participants were needed. Because cluster sampling was used, a design effect of 1.5 was applied to the sample, and 525 participants were selected. Inclusion criteria were (a) minimum age of 60, (b) living in Bandar Abbas, (c) community-dwelling, (d) lack of known psychological or cognitive disorders, (e) having no auditory or speech impairment, and (f) informed consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria included refusal to complete the study.

Sampling was conducted in two steps. Due to the large number of older adults in the community and lack of a sampling frame of the target population, and because the researchers were trying to select a representative sample from the total population, cluster sampling was applied to select seven health care centers of the 14 available in Bandar Abbas. According to the number of older adults covered by each center, a quota was assigned to each center. The required number of participants in each center were selected randomly from the list of older adults having an active record in the center.

Individuals were contacted, and if they agreed to participate in the study, they were briefed on the study purpose and provided the data collection instrument to be completed individually. If an individual did not agree to take part in the study, another older adult meeting the inclusion criteria was selected using the aforementioned method. If a participant was illiterate, the instrument was completed by the researcher through interviewing.

Instruments

Data collection was performed using a three-part instrument including (a) a demographic questionnaire, (b) Social Participation Questionnaire (SPQ; Moradi et al., 2013), and (c) the Phillips Social Support Inventory (PSSI; Pasha, Safarzadeh, & Mashak, 2007). The demographic part of the instrument consisted of 12 questions regarding age, gender, educational level, number and type of children (male/female), income, marital status, current job, previous job(s), existing chronic disorders, type of abode, and life entourage.

The SPQ was designed and validated by Moradi et al. (2013), and its reliability was confirmed (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78). The questionnaire consists of 17 items in two components of formal (i.e., institutional) and informal (i.e., noninstitutional) social participation. All items are rated on a Likert scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (always), with minimum and maximum scores of 17 and 85, respectively. In addition, the option “I don’t know” was added to each item to be selected if the older adult was unaware of the activity in question. The higher the score, the greater degree of social participation.

The PSSI inventory comprises 23 items in three subscales of family (8 items), friends (7 items), and others (8 items). All items are rated on a Likert scale from 4 (strongly agree) to 0 (strongly disagree), with minimum and maximum scores of 0 and 92, respectively. A higher score indicates more social support. The Persian version of the PSSI has been validated by Pasha et al. (2007) and has been demonstrated to have good validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84).

Ethical Considerations

The Institutional Review Board and Research Ethics Committee of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Healthcare Services, Kashan, Iran, approved the study. Required permissions were received from relevant authorities in Bandar Abbas. All study participants signed written informed consent and were assured of the confidentiality of their personal information and absence of any constraint to participate in the study.

Data Analysis

All analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16.0. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to evaluate the normality of data. Independent sample t test was used to examine the difference between mean scores of social participation and social support in participants with different gender, current job, and underlying disorders. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the difference between mean scores of social participation and social support in terms of educational level, income, marital status, previous jobs, type of abode, and life entourage. In addition, one-way ANOVA was used to test the difference between the cluster mean scores of social participation and social support. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the mean score of social support and variables such as age, number of children, and number of boys and girls. A backward linear regression model was used to examine the effect of social support subscales on social participation.

Results

A total of 525 older adults (290 men and 235 women) with a mean age of 65.6 (SD = 6.27 years, range = 60 to 89] participated in the study (Table 1).

Demographic Characteristics and Social Participation and Social Support Scores of the Study Sample (N = 525)Demographic Characteristics and Social Participation and Social Support Scores of the Study Sample (N = 525)

Table 1:

Demographic Characteristics and Social Participation and Social Support Scores of the Study Sample (N = 525)

The overall mean score of social support was 65.06 (SD = 14.07) for the total sample. Although the mean score of social support was slightly higher (65.96 [SD = 12.71]) in men than women (63.95 [SD = 15.53]), the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.104).

A significant difference was observed between older men and women in the subscale of social support received from family, with mean score being higher in men than women (20.59 [SD = 4.03] versus 19.43 [SD = 5.05], p = 0.004) (Table 2). However, no significant differences were observed between gender in terms of mean social support received from friends and significant others (Table 2).

Differences in Social Participation and Social Support Between Genders

Table 2:

Differences in Social Participation and Social Support Between Genders

The overall mean score of social participation was 26.21 (SD = 13.33) for the total sample. However, the mean score of social participation was significantly higher in men than women (28.78 [SD = 13.75] versus 23.06 [SD = 12.11], p = 0.001). Older men also achieved significantly higher social participation mean scores than older women in the formal and informal social participation subscales (Table 2).

No significant difference was observed between mean scores of the seven clusters in terms of social participation and social support (Table 3).

Social Support and Social Participation Scores Among Older Adults in the Seven Selected Health Care Centers (Clusters)

Table 3:

Social Support and Social Participation Scores Among Older Adults in the Seven Selected Health Care Centers (Clusters)

A significant direct correlation was observed between the scores of social participation and social support (p = 0.001, r = 0.23). All of the subscales in social support and social participation were significantly correlated (Table 4). Among the subscales of social support, the subscale of support received from significant others showed the highest correlation with the overall social participation of older adults (r = 0.22) (Table 4).

Correlation Between Social Participation and Social Support

Table 4:

Correlation Between Social Participation and Social Support

Backward linear regression was used to examine the effect of social support and its components on older adults’ social participation. Social support and its components were found to have significant effects on social participation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the scores of overall social support and its components are predictors for social participation in older adults (R2 = 0.067) (Table 5).

Results of Regression Analysis for Predicting Social Participation Based on Social Support Components

Table 5:

Results of Regression Analysis for Predicting Social Participation Based on Social Support Components

Discussion

The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between social support and social participation in older adults in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Overall score of social participation in the current study was 38.5%. This finding is consistent with a study conducted in Kerman, Iran (Yazdanpanah & Samadiyan, 2009); however, the levels of social participation of older adults were considerably higher in a study conducted in Canada in which 80% of older adults were frequent participants in at least one social activity in the period before the study (Gilmour, 2012). More than 50% of older adults in the current study had a minimum level of literacy; therefore, lower literacy level may be considered a factor in low levels of social participation. Low levels of literacy can largely affect older adults’ social participation, particularly in the area of formal (i.e., institutional) social activities. Participation in institutions, such as unions, cultural associations, town and village councils, and elections, requires a high level of reading and writing.

One half of older adults in the current study had a chronic disorder, and more than 40% had an income lower than their needs. Both of these problems significantly diminished mean scores of social support and social participation. These findings were consistent with the results of previous studies (Hu & Gruber, 2008; Marmot, 2002; Vincent, Whipple, McAllister, Aleman, & St. Sauver, 2015). Participation of older adults in informal and formal activities has been shown to be affected by disabilities resulting from chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and diabetes. Economic status is often negatively affected by serious chronic conditions. Thus, older adults’ social participation and social support are largely affected by the cumulative effects of their functional health and financial status.

In the current study, the level of social participation was significantly higher in older men than older women. This finding is in agreement with results of studies by Mazloum Khorasani et al. (2013) and Ahmad and Hafeez (2011), but was inconsistent with findings from studies by Cornwell (2011) and Moradi et al. (2013). Yazdan, Panah, and Samadian (2009) also investigated the individual and social factors affecting women’s social participation and reported that women’s social participation was moderate. Lower levels of women’s social participation could be attributed to patriarchy and domesticity of women in southern areas of Iran, such as Bandar Abbas. As men have the main role in providing the family income, they are more engaged in social activities, and thus have higher levels of social participation. In addition, Iranian women and girls have been deprived of formal education in the past; therefore, most older women are illiterate or semiliterate, which may affect their level of formal social activities.

The mean social support score of older adults in the current study was 65.6 of a total score of 92. This finding is the same as results reported by Khalili, Sam, Shariferad, Hassanzadeh, & Kazemi (2012) who studied the level of perceived social support in a sample of Iranian older adults. Khalili et al. (2012) interpreted this score as moderate. Decreased physical and cognitive functions in older adults may affect their perception of social support needs, thus their perceived social support is decreased.

The perception of social support may be different in different cultures. It is best to measure such variables using native or culturally adapted instruments. In the current study, the Persian version of the PSSI, which was developed in a Western culture, was used. It is therefore likely that the content of the social support questionnaire affected older adults’ responses.

The current study showed that social support can directly affect older adults’ participation in social activities. It seems that higher levels of social support will enhance older adults’ perceived psychosocial well-being, which consequently will lead to higher levels of engagement in social activities (Luttik et al., 2005; Rodriguez et al., 2008).

Nursing Implications and Conclusion

In the current study, a link was found between social support and social participation of older adults. Establishment of social strategies to increase older adults’ social support could be helpful in increasing their social participation. Such programs require multidisciplinary collaboration.

Currently, older adults’ social participation in Iran and Bandar Abbas is mostly a function of the individual’s previous experiences and personal characteristics. Nurses and specialty public health nurses in Iran and other countries may play an important role in encouraging older adults to participate in the establishment of local groups and clubs. These groups and clubs may keep older adults socially active, not only in recreational group activities, but also by using their valued experiences, such as in policy-making for the improvement of their sectors’ conditions.

Nurses and specialty public health nurses may also collaborate with local municipalities and other state and nongovernmental organizations to establish daycare centers in which older adults can spend their time. Attendance at such places may not only induce a sense of social participation in older adults, but also could increase their sense of social support.

In the current study, the levels of social support and social participation were lower in women compared to men. Social isolation of older women may marginalize them from social life, which can decrease their well-being and quality of life. This situation demands policy and health care interventions aimed at promoting social participation of older adults in public life, especially older women. Establishment of specific women’s parks in different parts of cities may also be helpful in increasing women’s social recreational activities, thus leading to increased levels of social support.

Currently, at least three theoretical and internship courses regarding “public health” are available in the nursing curriculum in Iran. Unfortunately, these courses are mostly theoretical in nature or conducted as observation in some health care centers. It is suggested that nursing faculties and educators modify their course contents and methods so that nursing students can participate in local, social projects, such as organizing visits by nurses to older adults’ homes, establishing clubs for older adults, and participating in daycare settings in which older adults spend time with friends. The effects of such interventions can then be assessed.

The current study was conducted in Bandar Abbas; therefore, the results can not be fully generalized to older adults in other areas. Further studies in different areas may present a more comprehensive picture to be used in national and international interventions. In addition, the instruments used in the current study were originally designed in a Western culture. Although their validity and reliability were assessed, it is best to measure culturally based variables, such as social support and social participation, with native or culturally adapted instruments. Qualitative studies are recommended to examine the concepts of social support and social participation in an Iranian and Eastern context.

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Demographic Characteristics and Social Participation and Social Support Scores of the Study Sample (N = 525)

Social Participation Score Social Support Score
Variable n (%) Mean (SD) p Value Mean (SD) p Value
Sex 0.001 0.104
  Male 290 (55.2) 28.75 (13.75) 65.96 (15.53)
  Female 235 (44.8) 23.06 (12.11) 63.95 (12.71)
Educational level 0.001 0.095
  Illiterate 202 (38.5) 20.19 (11.51) 63.23 (14.81)
  Elementary 106 (20.2) 30.06 (12.33) 64.63 (15.12)
  Intermediate 63 (12.0) 25.41 (12.91) 65.79 (11.76)
  Diploma 101 (19.2) 31.30 (14.34) 67.35 (13.96)
  University 53 (10.1) 32.68 (10.66) 67.55 (10.73)
Income 0.001 0.001
  Adequate 295 (56.2) 30.26 (12.98 67.31 (12.39)
  Less than adequate 218 (41.5) 20.15 (11.52) 61.84 (15.72)
  More than adequate 12 (2.3) 36.50 (8.04) 68.33 (9.66)
Marital status 0.001 0.001
  Married 425 (81) 27.98 (12.82) 66.34 (12.34)
  Widowed 74 (14) 17.15 (12.92) 62.24 (16.6)
  Single 21 (4) 27.98 (12.03) 53.81 (24.45)
  Divorced 5 (1) 20.40 (12.5) 45.40 (27.57)
Currently employed 0.001 0.001
  No 402 (76.6) 24.46 (12.93) 63.95 (14.64)
  Yes 123 (23.4) 31.90 (13.07) 68.69 (11.32)
Former employment 0.001 0.001
  Housekeeper 138 (26.3) 21.75 (11.54) 62.39 (17.10)
  Self-employed 132 (25.1) 28.03 (13.37) 62.92 (13.39)
  Official clerk 114 (21.7) 29.91 (13.18) 66.75 (12.14)
  Manual laborer 93 (17.7) 22.10 (13.28) 67.63 (11.67)
  Teacher 48 (9.1) 33.17 (12.20) 69.62 (12.57)
Underlying disease 0.001 0.001
  Yes 262 (49.9) 23.03 (12.44) 63.69 (15.56)
  No 263 (50.1) 29.37 (13.46) 66.43 (12.28)
Residence status 0.001 0.026
  Own 397 (75.6) 26.83 (13.19) 66.80 (12.43)
  Rent 100 (19.1) 26.99 (13.69) 61.75 (15.77)
  Live with children 28 (5.3) 14.50 (7.80) 52.14 (20.10)
Life entourage 0.001 0.001
  Wife and children 328 (62.5) 28.55 (13.10) 66.22 (12.60)
  Wife 97 (18.5) 26.75 (11.80) 66.80 (11.49)
  Children 65 (12.4) 15.68 (12.16) 60.45 (18.53)
  Alone 29 (5.5) 23.17 (12.37) 60.45 (14.77)
  Siblings 6 (1.1) 17.67 (6.21) 45.50 (34.70)

Differences in Social Participation and Social Support Between Genders

Variable Overall Score Male Female t p Value
Social participation
  Total 26.21 (13.33) 26.21 (13.33) 23.06 (12.11) −4.967 0.001
  Formal 10.10 (7.20) 10.10 (7.61) 8.38 (6.25) −5.055 0.001
  Informal 16.09 (7.36) 16.09 (7.48) 14.68 (6.96) −4.026 0.001
Social support
  Total 65.06 (14.07) 65.06 (14.41) 63.95 (15.53) −1.630 0.104
  Family 20.07 (4.55) 20.07 (4.03) 19.43 (5.05) −2.920 0.004
  Friend 22.87 (5.55) 22.87 (5.36) 22.56 (5.77) −1.034 0.302
  Other 21.97 (5.46) 21.97 (5.72) 21.83 (2.26) −1.034 0.606

Social Support and Social Participation Scores Among Older Adults in the Seven Selected Health Care Centers (Clusters)

Cluster Participants (n) Social Participation F p Value Social Support F p Value
1 79 26.58 (13.53) 0.384 0.911 66.05 (16.74) 0.977 0.440
2 69 26.26 (13.68) 66.64 (11.91
3 57 25.37 (13.13) 62.61 (13.81)
4 89 26.30 (12.01) 63.16 (12.57)
5 94 27.52 (13.71) 65.97 (16.04)
6 54 26.17 (13.68) 66.71 (12.15)
7 83 24.84 (13.97) 64.47 (13.37)
Total 525 26.21 (13.33) 65.06 (14.07)

Correlation Between Social Participation and Social Support

Social Participation
Variable Total Formal Informal
Social support
  Total 0.236 0.145 0.286
  Family 0.147 0.079 0.239
  Friend 0.237 0.117 0.260
  Other 0.224 0.148 0.253

Results of Regression Analysis for Predicting Social Participation Based on Social Support Components

Non-Standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
Model B SE Beta T p Value 95% CI
Social participation
  (Constant) 11.96 2.742 4.362 0.000 [19.452, 8.515]
  Total social support 1.223 0.431 1.290 2.838 0.005 [2.111, 0.420]
  Family social support −0.954 0.391 −0.326 −2.438 0.015 [−0.192, −1.727]
  Children social support −1.060 0.480 −0.442 −2.208 0.028 [−0.172, −2.056]
  Other social support −0.999 0.508 −0.409 −1.967 0.049 [−0.023, −2.012]
  R 0.259 R2 0.067

Keypoints

Amirkhosravi, N., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., Lotfi, M.-S. & Hosseinian, M. (2015). The Correlation of Social Support and Social Participation of Older Adults in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(6), 39–47.

  1. The correlation between social support and social participation was evaluated in Iranian older adults, who were found to have low levels of social participation.

  2. Iranian older women were found to have lower levels of social support and social participation compared to men.

  3. A correlation was found between social support and social participation in older adults.

10.3928/00989134-20150325-02

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