Elderly residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities have ongoing problems with adequate oral hydration (ArmstrongEsther, Browne, Armstrong-Esther, & Sander, 1996; Kayser-Jones, Schell, Porter, Barbaccia, & Shaw, 1999; Mentes, Culp, Maas, & Rantz, 1999). Research has demonstrated that community-dwelling older adults consume a greater variety and larger amounts of fluids than those living in LTC facilities. The mean amount of fluid consumed by communitydwelling elderly individuals is 2,100 cc per day (Adams, 1988; de Castro, 1992), while the mean amount of fluid consumed by residents in LTC is 1,100 to 1,500 cc per day (Adams, 1988; Armstrong-Esther et al., 1996; Chidester & Spangler, 1997; Kayseret al., 1999; O'Neill, Duggan, & Davies, 1997). The prevalence of underhydration and dehydration in LTC residents is estimated at 33% (Colling, Owen, & McCreedy, 1994; Mentes et al, 1999).
The results of a chronically underhydrated state are acute confusion, dehydration, urinary and respiratory infections, and constipation, all of which could precipitate a preventable hospitalization (Palevsky, Bhagrath, & Greenberg, 1996) and place elderly individuals at increased risk for repeated hospitalizations (Gordon, An, Hayward, & Williams, 1998). In fact, this insidious state of chronic underhydration becomes a physiologic balancing act where the frail older adult becomes increasingly susceptible to small environmental or physiologic stressors that can precipitate dehydration and further health crises. The ramifications of chronic underhydration are further hidden by the fact that after an elderly individual is hospitalized for a stated health problem, such as pneumonia, the antecedent condition of underhydration or dehydration is obscured. Therefore, although the cost of hospitalizations for dehydration in 1996 exceeded $1 billion dollars (KayserJones et al, 1999), it is likely that this figure is much higher.
It is imperative for nurses to lead the way with the issue of oral hydration management for elderly individuals in LTC. With careful attention to assessment of fluid needs and appropriate supervision of certified nursing assistant (CNA) practice, adequate oral hydration can be established and maintained. The following protocol offers background information on individuals likely to be at risk for hydration management problems, assessment tips, and strategies for interventions. Although the complete protocol addresses both extremes of dehydration and overhydration, the review of this protocol will focus primarily on managing underhydration or dehydration.
The purpose of this evidence-based protocol is to help health care providers in all settings determine adequate oral fluid intake for elderly individuals and to use strategies that will maintain hydration. Use of this protocol will help prevent dehydration and associated conditions, such as acute confusion and delirium (Foreman, 1989; O'Keeffe & Lavan, 1996; Seymour, Henschke, Cape, & Campbell, 1980), infections (Beaujean et al., 1997), and increased mortality (Warren et al., 1994); and overhydration. The focus of this protocol is to prevent dehydration or overhydration through careful assessment, identification of elderly individuals at risk for hydration problems, and implementation of individualized nursing interventions based on a risk profile. This protocol does not include interventions for acute or emergent rehydration of elderly individuals.
Definition of Hydration Management
Hydration management is the promotion of adequate fluid balance that prevents complications resulting from abnormal or undesired fluid levels (See Fluid Management and Fluid Monitoring nursing interventions in McCloskey & Bulechek, 2000, pp. 348-349, 352).
Definitions of Associated Terms
Terms associated with dehydration are categorized in various ways according to:
* Sodium concentration (hypernatremic dehydration).
* Tonicity or active osmoles of the fluid (hypertonic dehydration).
* The fluid compartment affected (intracellular dehydration).
For the purposes of this document, tonicity will be used to categorize the hydration problem (Weinberg, Minaker, and the Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA, 1995).
Hypertonic dehydration. Hypertonic dehydration is a depletion in total body water content due to pathologic fluid losses, diminished water intake, or a combination of both (Gross et al., 1992). It results in hypernatremia in the extracellular fluid compartment, which draws water from the intracellular fluids. The water loss is shared by all body fluid compartments and relatively little reduction in extracellular fluids occurs. Thus, circulation is not compromised unless the loss is very large (Leaf, 1984; Mange et al., 1997). This is also known as intracellular dehydration or hypernatremic dehydration.
Hypotonic dehydration. Hypotonic dehydration is a depletion in both sodium and water with greater losses of sodium than water, resulting in extracellular fluid loss (Leaf, 1984; Mange et al., 1997; Silver, 1990). Causes of hypotonic dehydration include overuse of diuretics, chronic salt wasting renal disease, and decreased intake of both salt and water. Circulation is effected in hypotonic dehydration (Leaf, 1984; Silver, 1990). This is also known as extracellular fluid volume depletion.
Isotonic dehydration. Isotonic dehydration is a balanced depletion of water and sodium causing extracellular fluid loss. Causes of isotonic dehydration include: vomiting, diarrhea, and the osmotic diuresis of glucose. Circulation is effected in isotonic dehydration (Mange et al., 1997). This is also known as isotonic fluid volume depletion.
INDIVIDUALS AT RISK FOR DEHYDRATION
Elderly individuals are at increased risk for dehydration because of agerelated physiologic changes including:
* Altered thirst perception (Mack et al., 1994; Miescher & Fortney, 1989; Phillips, Bretherton, Johnston, & Gray, 1991; Phillips et al., 1984;).
* Reduced total body water (TBW) as a portion of body weight (Gross et al, 1992).
* Body composition changes (i.e., higher proportion of fat to muscle) (Metheny, 1996).
* Impaired renal conservation of water (Gross et al., 1992).
* Decreased effectiveness of vasopressin (Faull, Holmes & Baylis, 1993; Phillips, Johnston, & Gray, 1993).
* Increased prevalence of multiple chronic diseases (Weinberg et al., 1995).
Research based risk factors for dehydration in long-term care settings include:
* Older than 85 years of age (Lavisso-Mourey et al., 1988).
* Female gender (Gaspar, 1988; Lavisso-Mourey, Johnson, & Stolley, 1988; Mentes, 2000).
* Functionally semi-dependent (e.g., those individuals who are cognitively unaware of their needs yet have mobility, and those who are physically unable to meet their needs but who can express them) (Gaspar, 1988).
* Functionally independent (Gaspar, 1999; Mentes, 2000).
* Alzheimer's disease or other dementias (Albert, Nakra, Grossberg, & Caminal, 1989; Kayser-Jones et al., 1999).
RELATIVE STRENGTH OF DIFFERENT SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION IN ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS
* Four or more chronic conditions (Lavisso-Mourey et al., 1988).
* Bedridden (Lavisso-Mourey et al., 1988).
* More than four medications (Lavisso-Mourey et al., 1988).
* Fever (Pals et al., 1995).
* Decrease in activities of daily living (ADLs) (Pals et al, 1995).
* Few fluid ingestion opportunities (Gaspar, 1988).
* Poor oral intake (Weinberg et al., 1994).
* Communication difficulties (i.e., unable to speak English, aphasie) (Kayser-Jones et al., 1999).
Minimum Data Set (MDS)
Dehydration and fluid maintenance triggers for dehydration among residents of LTC facilities include (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, 1990; Weinberg et al., 1995):
* Deterioration in cognitive status, skills, or abilities in past 90 days.
* Failure to eat or take medications.
* Urinary tract infection.
* Current diagnosis of dehydration (ICD-9 code 276-5).
* Dizziness and vertigo.
* Internal bleeding.
* Weight loss (≥5% in past 30 days or 10% in past 180 days).
* Insufficient fluid intake (dehydrated).
* Did not consume all or almost all liquids provided during past 3 days.
* Leaves more than or equal to 25% food uneaten at most meals.
* Requirement for intravenous fluids.
Additional potential risk factors from the MDS include (Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, 1990; Weinberg & Minaker, 1995):
* Hand dexterity and body control problems.
* Use of diuretics.
* Abuse of laxatives.
* Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
* Swallowing problems.
* Purposeful restriction of fluids.
* Patient on enteral feedings.
* History of previous episodes of dehydration.
* Comprehension and communication problems.
Research based factors that increase risk of hospitalization for dehydration include (Warren et al., 1994):
* Age. Individuals age 85 to 99 had six times the risk of individuals age 65 to 69.
* Race. Blacks were 1.5 to 2 times more likely than Whites.
* Gender. Within race, men were more likely than women, except for White men age 65 to 79.
* Admission from a nursing home (Palevsky, Bhagrath, & Greenberg, 1996).
Medical conditions associated with hospitalization for dehydration include (Warren et al., 1994):
* Respiratory illness (28.2%).
* Urinary tract infection (24.9%).
* Gastroenteritis (10.4%).
* Sepsis (7.1%).
* Frailty (20.3%).
* Cancer (15.7%).
* Diabetes (12.0%).
Literature-based risk factors for dehydration in acute and long-term care include (Boylan & Marbach, 1979; Irwin, 1987; Kositzke, 1990; Palevsky, Bhagrath, & Greenberg, 1996; Sansevero, 1997; Silver, 1990):
* Vomiting or diarrhea.
* Cognitive impairment.
* Self-imposed fluid restriction due to urinary incontinence.
* Tube feeding.
* Poor postoperative fluid management.
* Hot weather.
The following screening criteria indicate patients who are likely to benefit the most from use of this evidence-based protocol:
* All individuals older than 85 years of age.
* All institutionalized elderly individuals (Adams, 1988; ArmstrongEsther et al., 1996; Colling, Owen, & McCreedy,1994; Himmelstein, Jones, & Woolhandler, 1983).
* Individuals with recent weight loss of more than 5% of body weight.
* Individuals with feeding and eating difficulties.
* Individuals with a diagnosis of dementia.
* Febrile individuals.
DESCRIPTION OF INTERVENTION
The hydration management intervention is an individualized daily plan to promote adequate hydration based on risk factor identification derived from a comprehensive assessment. The intervention is divided into three phases:
* Initial assessment and risk identification phase.
* Hydration management phase.
* Evaluation phase.
Individualized assessment of elderly individuals is recommended and should include the following parameters:
Basic physiological measures. Basic physiological measures (Table 1) include (Eaton, Bannister, Mulley, & Connolly, 1994; Gross et al., 1992; Silver, 1990):
* Vital signs including temperature, pulse, respirations, orthostatic blood pressure.
* Weight (in kilograms).
* Height (in centimeters).
* Body mass index (BMI) Kg/cmp 2. A BMI less than 21 or greater than 27 puts an individual at risk for dehydration (Nutrition Screening Initiative, 1992).
* Review of systems or head-totoe assessment, including an assessment of the oral cavity, upper body strength, and speech (Gross et al, 1992).
Laboratory tests. Many laboratory tests (Armstrong et al., 1994; Metheny, 1996; Neelon, personal communication, 1998) can be helpful in assessing hydration status in elderly individuals (Table 2). It should be noted that the blood tests are better predictors of actual dehydration and the urine tests are better at predicting impending dehydration or those patients at risk for developing dehydration.
APPROXIMATE RANGES OF LABORATORY TESTS FOR HYDRATION STATUS
Hydration status. Hydration status includes:
* Urine specific gravity.
* Urine color.
* 24-hour fluid intake and urine output.
* Treatments (i.e., nothing-bymouth [NPO] status, enteral/tube feedings).
* Usual pattern of fluid intake (e.g., Do they consume most of their fluids during meals? At what time of the day do they consume the most fluids? What is the actual amount of fluid intake? What types of fluids are preferred?).
* Intake behaviors or problematic behaviors associated with fluid intake (e.g., choking, drooling, inability to hold a cup independently, or resistance to drinking caused by fear of incontinence).
Cognitive status. Cognitive status is determined using a standard mental status questionnaire such as the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) (Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), Short Orientation Memory Concentration Test (Katzman, Brown, FuId, Peck, Schechter, & Schimmel, 1983), Short Portable Mental Status Test (SPMSQ) (Pfeiffer, 1975), the MDS Cognitive Performance Scale (Morris, et al., 1994), or the Cognitive Patterns section of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) of the MDS (Morris, et al., 1990).
Functional health status/Activities of daily living. These are measured using a standard questionnaire such as the Katz ADL (Katz, Ford, Moskowitz, Jackson, &Jaffee, 1963), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, 1997), the Barthel Index (Mahoney & Barthel, 1965), or the ADL section from the RAI.
Mood status. A standard questionnaire, such as the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (Yesavage & Brink, 1983), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (Alexopoulos, Abrams, Young, & Shamoian, 1988), or the Mood section from RAI, is used to determine mood status.
Medical history. This includes:
RISK APPRAISAL CHECKLIST*
* Specific disease states: dementia; congestive heart failure; chronic renal disease; malnutrition; and psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder.
* Presence of comorbidity (more than four chronic health conditions).
* History of dehydration or repeated infections.
Current medications. This includes the amount and types of prescription and over-the-counter drugs.
Based on the assessment data, a risk appraisal for hydration problems is completed. Table 3 includes a copy of the Risk Appraisal Checklist (Mentes & Iowa-VA Nursing Research Consortium, 1998) referenced to MDS items. The more indicators present on the checklist, the greater the likelihood of underhydration or dehydration.
Ongoing management of oral intake.
* Calculate a daily fluid goal (Figure 1). All residents will have an individualized fluid goal determined by a documented standard for daily fluid intake. There is preliminary evidence that the standard suggested by Skipper (1993) of 100 mL/kg for first 10 kg of weight, 50 ml/kg for next 10 kg, and 15 mL for remaining kg is preferred (Chidester & Spangler, 1997; Kayser-Jones et al., 1999).
Because this standard reflects fluid from all sources, to calculate a standard for fluids alone, 75% of the total calculated from the formula is used in this example. See the complete Hydration Management Protocol for other fluid calculation standards and formulas (Mentes & Iowa-VA Nursing Research Consortium, 1998)
* Compare resident's current intake to the amount calculated from applying the standard.
* Provide fluids consistently throughout the day. Fluid intake will be planned as 75% to 80% delivered at meals and 20% to 25% delivered during non-meal times (i.e., medication or nourishment rounds). Offer a variety of fluids based upon the individual's previous intake pattern (Zembrzuski, 1997). Alcoholic beverages, which exert a diuretic effect on the resident, should not be counted toward the fluid goal. Caffeinated beverages may be counted toward the fluid goal based on individual assessment, as there is preliminary evidence that in individuals who are regular users there are no untoward effects on fluid balance (Martof & Knox, 1997). A comparison of common oral fluids is included in the complete protocol. Fluid with medication administrations should be standardized to a prescribed amount (e.g., at least 180 mL [6 oz.] per administration time).
Figure 1. Sample fluid goal calculation for 70 kg individual.
* Plan for at-risk individuals. For residents who are at risk of underhydration because of poor intake several strategies can be implemented based on unit preference, time, and staffing issues. Schedule fluid rounds midmorning and late afternoon where caregiver provides additional fluids (Spangler, Risley, & Bilyew, 1984). Plan "happy, hours" (Musson et al, 1990) or "tea time" (Mueller & Boisen, 1989) in the afternoon where residents can gather together for additional fluids, nourishment, and socialization. Modified fluid containers will be used based on resident's intake behaviors (e.g., ability to hold cup, to swallow) (Mueller & Boisen, 1989; Reedy, 1988). Offer a variety of fluids and encourage ongoing intake throughout the day. "Sip n' go" intervention can be used for residents who are reluctant to drink a standardized amount of fluid. For this intervention, anyone who enters a resident's room while that individual is awake, offers at least 2 ounces (60 mL) of water or other beverage of choice.
* Fluid regulation and documentation. Individuals who are cognitively intact and visually capable can be taught how to regulate their fluid intake by comparing the color of their urine to a standardized urine color chart (Armstrong et al., 1994). For those individuals who are cognitively impaired, caregivers can be taught how to use the color chart. Frequency of documentation of fluid intake will vary from setting to setting and is dependent on an individual's condition. However, in most settings, at least one accurate intake and output recording should be documented and include the amount of fluid consumed, intake pattern, difficulties with consumption, and urine specific gravity and color. Accurate calculation of intake requires knowledge of the volumes of containers used to serve fluids which should be posted in a prominent place on the care unit. A study by Burns (1992) suggested that nurses over- or underestimated the volumes of common vessels.
Acute management of oral intake. Any resident who develops a fever, vomiting, diarrhea, or a non-febrile infection should be closely monitored by implementing intake and output records and provision of additional fluids as tolerated (Weinberg et al, 1994). Individuals who are required to be NPO for diagnostic tests should be given special consideration to shorten the time that they must be NPO and should be provided with adequate amounts of fluids and food when they have completed their tests.
EVALUATION OF PROCESS OUTCOMES
Adherence to the hydration management guideline must be monitored. The frequency of monitoring may be determined by the health care setting. The following parameters should be included in any adherence evaluation:
* Urine color monitoring consistently checked at the same time of day to make the most valid comparison (Armstrong et ah, 1994, 1998). Cutoff values of urine color indicative of impending dehydration based on Armstrong's chart are currently being researched. The urine color chart is available from: Lawrence Armstrong, Ph.D., University of Connecticut, 2095 Hillside Road, Box U-IlO, Storrs, CT 06269-1110.
* Urine specific gravity evaluation consistently checked at the same time of day to make the most valid comparison (Armstrong et al., 1994, 1998).
* Twenty-four-hour intake recording (output recording may be added; however in settings where individuals are incontinent of urine, an intake recording should suffice).
Deviations from the guideline should be discussed with the individual's primary nurse. Updated plans to manage hydration status will be implemented.
EVALUATION OF PATIENT OUTCOMES
To evaluate the use of this protocol among patients at risk for hydration management problems, specific resident outcomes relevant to hydration management should be evaluated on a regular basis according to resident need or institutional policies.
Outcomes of adequate hydration reported in the literature include:
* Maintenance of body hydration.
* Decreased infections, especially urinary tract infections (McConnell, 1984; Mentes, 2000).
* Improvement in urinary incontinence (Spangler et al., 1984).
* Lowered urinary pH (Hart & Adamek, 1984).
* Decreased constipation (Hert & Huseboe, 1998; Sheehy & Hall, 1998).
* Decreased acute confusion (Mentes & Buckwalter, 1997; Mentes et al., 1999).
The use of an outcome monitoring system such as the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) can also help in the evaluation of resident outcomes. Table 4 lists critical indicators adapted to evaluate improvement in underhydration and dehydration using the Fluid Balance Outcome Scale from NOC (Johnson, Maas, & Moorhead, 2000).
- (R) = Research
- (L) = Literature
- (N) = National Guideline
- Adams, F. (1988). How much do elders drink? Geriatric Nursing, 9(4), 218-221. (R)
- Albert, S., Nakra, B., Grossberg, G., & Caminal, E. (1989). Vasopressin response to dehydration in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 37, 843-847. (R)
- Alexopoulos, G.S., Abrams, R., Young, R., & Shamoian, C. (1988). Cornell Scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23(3), 271-284.
- Armstrong-Esdier, C, Browne, K., ArmstrongEsther, D., & Sander, L. (1996). The institutionalized elderly: Dry to the bone! International Journal of Nursing Studies, 33(6), 619-628. (R)
- Armstrong, L., Maresh, C, Castellani, J., Bergeron, M., Kenefick, R., La Grasse, K., & Riebe, D. (1994). Urinary indices of hydration status. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 4(3), 265-279. (R)
- Armstrong, L., Soto, J., Hacker, R, Casa, D., Kavouras, S., & Maresh, C (1998). Urinary indices during dehydration, exercise and rehydration. International Journal of Spon Nutrition, 8(4), 345-355. (R)
- Beaujean, D., Blok, H., VandenbrouckeGrauls, C, Weersink, A., Ray makers, J., & Verhoef, J. (1997). Surveillance of nosocomial infections in geriatric patients. Journal of Hospital Infection, 36(4), 275-284. (R)
- Boylan, A., & Marbach, B. (1979). Dehydration: Subtle, sinister...preventable. RN, 42(8), 36-41. (L)
- Burns, D. (1992). Working up a thirst. Nursing Times, 88(62), 44-45. (R)
- Chidester, J., & Spangler, A. (1997). Fluid intake in the institutionalized elderly. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97(1), 23-28. (R)
- Colling, J., Owen, T, & McCreedy, M. (1994). Urine volumes and voiding patterns among incontinent nursing home residents. Geriatric Nursing, 15(4), 188-192. (R)
- de Castro, J. (1992). Age-related changes in natural spontaneous fluid ingestion and thirst in humans. Journal of Gerontology, 47(5), 321-330. (R)
- Dorrington, K. (1981). Skin turgor. Do we understand the sign? The Lancet, 1(8214), 264-266. (L)
- Eaton, D., Bannister, P., Mulley, G., & Connolly, M. (1994). Axillary sweat in clinical assessment of dehydration in ill elderly patients. British Medical Journal, 308, 1271. (R)
- Failli, C, Holmes, C, & Baylis, P. (1993). Water balance in elderly people: Is there a deficiency of vasopressin? Age and Aging, 22(2), 114-120. (R)
- Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, RR. (1975). Mini-mental state: A practical guide for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.
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- Gaspar, P. (1999). Water intake of nursing home residents. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 25(4), 22-29. (R)
- Gordon, J., An, L., Hay ward, R., & Williams, B. (1998). Initial emergency department diagnosis and return visits: Risk versus perception. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 32(5), 569-573. (R)
- Gross, C, Lindquist, R., Anthony, W, Granieri, R., Allard, K., & Webster, B. (1992). Clinical indicators of dehydration severity in elderly patients. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 10(3), 267-274. (R)
- Hart, M., & Adamek, C. (1984). Do increased fluids decrease urinary stone formation? Geriatric Nursing, 5(6), 245-248. (R)
- Hert, M., & Huseboe, J. (1998). Researchbased protocol: management of constipation. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Development and Dissemination Core. (R)
- Himmelstein, D., Jones, A., & Woolhandler, S. (1983). Hypernatremic dehydration in nursing home patients: An indicator of neglect. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 31, 466-471. (R)
- Irwin, M. (1987). "Encourage oral intake" - Yes, but how? American Journal of Nursing, 87(1), 100-106. (L)
- Johnson, M., Maas, M., & Moorhead, S. (Eds.). (2000). Iowa Outcomes Project. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). St. Louis: Mosby. (R)
- Katz, S., Ford, A., Moskowitz, R., Jackson, B., & Jaffee, M. (1963). Studies of illness in the aged: The index of ADL: A standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. Journal of the American Medical Association, 185, 914-919.
- Katzman, R., Brown, T, FuId, P., Peck, A., Schechter, R., & Schimmel, H. (1983). Validation of a short orientation memory concentration test of cognitive impairment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 734-739.
- Kayser-Jones, J., Schell, E., Porter, E., Barbaccia, J., & Shaw, H. (1999). Factors contributing to dehydration in nursing homes: Adequate staffing and lack of professional supervision. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 1187-1194.(R)
- Kositzke, J. (1990). A question of balance. Dehydration in the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing /6(5), 4-11 (L)
- Lavisso-Mourey, R., Johnson, J., & Stolley, P. (1988). Risk factors for dehydration among elderly nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36, 213-218. (R)
- Leaf, A. (1984). Dehydration in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 791-792. (L)
- Mack, G., Weseman, C, Langhans, G-, Scherzer, H., Gillen, C, & Nadel, E. (1994). Body fluid balance in dehydrated healthy older men: Thirst and renal osmoregulation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 76(4), 1615-1623. (R)
- Mahoney, F.J., & Barthel, D.W. (1965). Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index. Maryland State Medical Journal, 14, 61-65.
- Mange, K., Matsuura, D., Cizman, B., Soto, H., Ziyadeh, F, Goldfarb, S., & Neilson, E. (1997). Language guiding therapy: The case of dehydration versus volume depletion. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(9), 848-853. (L)
- Martof, M., & Knox, D. (1997). The effect of xanthines on fluid balance. Clinical Nursing Research, 6(2), 186-196. (R)
- McCloskey, J., & Bulechek, G. (Eds). (2000). Iowa Intervention Project. Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (3rd Ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. (R)
- McConnell, J. (1984). Preventing urinary tract infections. ..nursing measures alone reduced UTI in a nursing home. Geriatric Nursing - American Journal of Care for the Aging, 5(9), 361-362. (R)
- Mentes, J.C. (2000). Hydration management: A long-term care nursing intervention to prevent acute confusion and other hydration-linked events. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City. (R)
- Mentes, J., & Buckwalter, K. (1997). Getting back to basics. Managing hydration to prevent acute confusion in frail elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 23(10), 48-51. (L)
- Mentes, J.C., Iowa- Veterans Affairs Nursing Research Consortium. (1998). Researchbased protocol: Hydration management. In M.G. Titler (Series Ed.) Evidence- based protocols for the care of the older adult. Iowa City, IA: Research Development and Dissemination Core, Gerontological Nursing Intervention Research Center.
- Mentes, J., CuIp, K., Maas, M., & Rantz, M. (1999). Acute confusion indicators: Risk factors and prevalence. Using MDS data. Research in Nursing & Health, 22(2), 95105. (R)
- Metheny, N. (1996). Fluid and electrolyte balance. Nursing considerations (3rd Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott. (L)
- Miescher, E., & Fortney, S. (1989). Responses to dehydration and rehydration during heat exposure in young and older men. American Journal of Physiology, 257(26), R1050-R1056. (R)
- Morris, J., Fries, B., Mehr, D., Hawes, C., Phillips, C, Mor, V, & Lipsitz, L. (1994). MDS cognitive performance. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 49, M 174M182.
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- Musson, N., Kincaid, J., Ryan, P., Glussman, B., Varone, L., Gamarra, N., Wilson, R., Reefe, W, & Silverman, M. (1990). Nature, nurture, nutrition: Interdisciplinary programs to address the prevention of malnutrition and dehydration. Dysphagia, 5(2), 65-101. (R)
- Nutrition Screening Initiative (1992). Nutrition intervention manual for professionals caring for older Americans. Washington DC: Greer, Margolis, Mitchell, Grunwald & Associates. (N)
- O'Keeffe, S.T., & Lavan, J.N. (1996). Predicting delirium in elderly patients: Development and validation of a risk-stratification model. Age and Aging, 25(4), 317-321. (R)
- Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and 1990. 6.2 CFR § 483.25. (N)
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- Palevsky, P., Bhagrath, R., & Greenberg, A. (1996). Hypernatremia in hospitalized patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 124(2), 127-203. (R)
- Pals, J., Weinberg, D., Beai, L., Levesque, P., Cunningham, T, & Minaker, K. (1995). Clinical triggers for detection of fever and dehydration: Implications for long-term care nursing. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(4), 13-19. (R)
- Pfeiffer, E. (1975). A short portable mental status questionnaire for assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 23, 433-441.
- Phillips, P., Bretherton, M., Johnston, C, & Gray, L. (1991). Reduced osmotic thirst in healthy elderly men. American Journal of Physiology, 261(1 Pt. 2), R166-R171. (R)
- Phillips, P., Johnston, C, & Gray, I. (1993). Disturbed fluid and electrolyte homeostasis following dehydration in elderly people. Age and Aging, 22(1), S26-S33. (R)
- Phillips, P., Rolls, B., Ledingham, J., Forsling, M., Morton, J., Crowe, M., & Wollner, L. (1984). Reduced thirst after water deprivation in healthy elderly men. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 753-759. (R)
- Reedy, D. (1988). How can you prevent dehydration? Geriatric Nursing, 9(4), 224-226. (L)
- Sansevero, A. (1997). Dehydration in die elderly: Strategies for prevention and management. Nurse Practitioner, 22(4), 41-70. (L)
- Seymour, D., Henschke, P, Cape, R., & Campbell, A. (1980). Acute confusional states and dementia in the elderly: The role of dehydration/volume depletion, physical illness and age. Age and Aging, 9(3), 137-146.(R)
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- Silver, A. (1990). Aging and risks for dehydration. Cleveknd Clinic Journal of Medicine, 57(4), 341-344. (L)
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- Spangler, P., Risley, T, SC Bilyew, D. (1984). The management of dehydration and incontinence in nonambulatory geriatric patients. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17(3), 397-401. (R)
- Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation. (1997). Guide for the uniform data set for medical rehabilitation (including the FIM™ Instrument) (Version 5.1). Buffalo, NY: University at Buffalo.
- Warren, J., Bacon, E., Harris, T., McBean, A., Foley, D., & Phillips, C. (1994). The burden and outcomes associated with dehydration among U.S. elderly, 1991. American Journal of Public Health, 84(S), 1265-1269. (R)
- Weinberg, A., Minaker, K., & The Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA. (1995). Dehydration. Evaluation and management in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274, 1562-1556. (L)
- Weinburg, A., Pals, J., Levesque, P., Beals, L., Cunningham, T" & Minaker, K. (1994). Dehydration and death during febrile episodes in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 968-971. (R)
- Yesavage, J. & Brink, T. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37-49.
- Zembrzuski, C. (1997). A diree-dimensional approach to hydration of elders: Administration, clinical staff, and in-service education. Geriatric Nursing, 18(1), 20-26. (L)
- ADDITIONAL READING
- Batscha, C. (1997). Heat stroke. Keeping your patients cool in the summer. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 35(7), 12-17. (L)
- Butler, A.M., & Talbot, N.B. (1948). Parental fluid therapy: Estimation and provision of daily maintenance requirements. New England Journal of Medicine, 231, 585-590. (L)
- Chernecky, C, Krech, R., & Berger, B. (1993). Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. (L)
- Chernoff, R. (1994). Meeting the nutritional needs of the elderly in the institutional setting. Nutrition Review, 52(4), 132136. (L)
- Clark, N. (1992). Fluid facts. What, when and how much to drink. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 20(1 1), 33-36. (L)
- Food and Nutrition Board (1989). Recommended Dietary Allowances. (10th ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (N)
- Henley, J., Fagan-Pryor, E., & Haber, L. (1992). Nursing program to meet the challenge of caring for patients with water intoxication. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 13(1), 59-67. (L)
- Herbert, R. (1980, May). Fluids off balance. Over- and under-hydration. Nursing, 13, 555-557. (L)
- Hoffman, N. (1991). Dehydration in the elderly: Insidious and manageable. Geriatrics, 46(6), 35-38. (L)
- Mentes, J., Culp, K., Wakefield, B., Gaspar, P., Rapp, C.G., Mobily, P., & Tripp-Reimer, T. (1998). Dehydration as a precipitating factor in the development of acute confusion in die frail elderly. In B. Vellas, J. Albarede, & P. Garry (Series Ed.) & M. Arnaud, R. Baumgartner, J. Morley, I. Rosenberg, & S. Toshikazu (Vol. Eds.), Facts, research and interventions in geriatria. New York: Springer. (L)
- Wakefield, B., Mentes J., & CuIp, K. (1998). Prediction of impending dehydration in elderly veterans. Veteran's Affairs VISN-14 grant. (R)
- Wooten, M., & Liebman, B. (1998). Ten steps to a healthy 1998. Nutrition Action Health Letter, 25(1), I1 6-9. (L)
RELATIVE STRENGTH OF DIFFERENT SIGNS OF DEHYDRATION IN ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS
APPROXIMATE RANGES OF LABORATORY TESTS FOR HYDRATION STATUS
RISK APPRAISAL CHECKLIST*