HOW TO OBTAIN CONTINUING EDUCATION UNITS BY READING THIS ISSUE
Instructions: Registered nurses may receive three contact hours by reading the article noted below and successfully answering the questions in the following post-test. To obtain continuing education unit credit:
1. Read the article, "Complexities of Pain Assessment in the Elderly: Clinical Considerations" on page 12, carefully noting the tables and other illustrative materials which are provided to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content.
2. Read each question and record your answer on the registration form provided.
3. Type or print your full name and address and your social security number in spaces provided on the registration form.
4. Forward the completed form with your check or money order for $12 made out to University of Maryland, School of Nursing. Photocopies of the quiz are not acceptable; use only the original quiz.
Continuing Education Units: Contact hours are granted by The University of Maryland School of Nursing Continuing Education Program which is accredited by the Eastern Regional Accrediting Committee of the American Nurses' Association. SLACK Inc. and University of Maryland School of Nursing are co-providers of this continuing education home study program.
Answers to the post-test will be graded and you will be advised that you have passed or failed within 60 days of receipt of your completed test. A score of 70% or above will comprise a passing grade. A certificate will be awarded to participants who successfully complete the test.
Ten contact hours of participation in an educational offering is awarded one CEU. A contact hour is 50 minutes of instruction. Contact hour verification can only be awarded at the completion of a program.
CONTACT HOUR UNITS RECEIVED FOR SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE POST-TEST MAY BE USED FOR CERTIFICATION OR RECERTIFICATION CREDIT.
Objectives: After reading the article, "Complexities of Pain Assessment in the Elderly: Clinical Considerations," the participant will be able to:
1. Identify adaptations in the assessment process to accommodate changes associated with aging.
2. Identify factors that lead to the misinterpretation of pain in the elderly.
3. List sources for data collection about pain.
4. Discuss strategies for assessing pain in the elderly.
5. State the percentage of elders in nursing homes experiencing pain.
6. Describe several tools to assess pain in the elderly.
Directions: Encircle the letter of the best answer on the registration form provided.
1 . According to Herr and Mobily, information about the elderly's pain experience should be gathered:
A. Directly from the elderly in his/her own words.
B. From significant others and family.
C. Through the nurse's own observation of behaviors.
D. All of the above.
2. To avoid time pressures when gathering information about pain from the elderly, the nurse should do all of the following except:
A. Divide the assessment into several shorter sessions.
B. Select the most crucial elements to assess.
C. Gather data quickly to avoid long sessions.
D. Select a tool that requires less time to complete.
3. All of the following strategies may improve pain assessment for the elderly with visual impairment except:
A. Use of large, simple lettering in upper and lowercase.
B. Use of decorative drawings which illustrate the content.
C. Collecting data by interview.
D. Use of buff-colored non-glare paper on written tools.
4. Which one of the following statements is false?
A. Significant others should always be the first source of data for elderly patients with cognitive impairment.
B. Vocalizations and non-verbal behaviors provide useful information when assessing elderly who cannot communicate verbally.
C. Drug interactions may interfere with the elderly's perception of pain and ability to report pain.
D. Elderly with decreased fine motor control should not be asked to complete tools requiring accurate marking on lines.
5. Which of the following factors can lead to misinterpretation of pain in the elderly?
A. Atypical presentation of pain in the elderly.
B. Gender or cultural differences in pain expression.
C. Terminology used by the elderly to describe pain.
D. All of the above.
6. A study by Roy and Thomas indicated that greater than what percent of nursing home residents reported pain?
7. A thorough assessment of the pain experience of the elderly patient would omit which of the following?
A. Functional assessment.
B. Work history.
C. Observation of body movements.
D. Questions about changes in concentration.
8. With the cognitively impaired elder, assessment would include:
A. A visual analogue scale.
B. Use of the McGiII Pain Questionnaire printed in large type.
C. Evaluation of mental processes.
D. Use of a horizontally oriented scale.
9. An assessment tool that could be administered to an elder with impaired communication skills is a:
A. Color tool.
B. Pain diary.
C. Visual analogue scale.
D. Short-form McGiII Pain Questionnaire.
10. A factor which can influence an elder's expression of pain is:
A. Economic status.
B. Marital status.
C. Cultural values.
D. Religious preference.