Introduction of PCV13 led to reduced risk of otitis media
The risk for otitis media and the insertion of pressure equalization tubes among young children decreased following the introduction of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, according to research published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Andrew D. Wiese, MPH, PhD, from the department of health policy at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and colleagues wrote that Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading bacterial causes of otitis media. After PCV7 was introduced in 2000, all-cause otitis media cases and pressure equalization tube (PET) insertions decreased. Further reductions were observed with the introduction of PCV13 in 2010.
The researchers examined birth cohorts of Medicaid-enrolled children residing in Tennessee from 2006 and 2014 until the children were aged 2 years. The risk of otitis media when PCV7 was used (2006 to 2010) was examined and compared with the risk of infection after PCV13 was introduced (2011 to 2014). Diagnoses made less than 21 days after the previous diagnosis were considered part of the same episode.
Additionally, Wiese and colleagues assessed the number of PET insertions and the risk of insertion during the PCV7 and PCV13 eras.
During the study period, Wiese and colleagues identified 368,063 children who received diagnoses for 618,968 episodes of otitis media. PET insertions were performed 24,875 times.
The risk of otitis media among children aged younger than 2 years decreased 8% after the switch from PCV7 to PCV13, with the risk of otitis media and PET insertion lower in the 2013-2014 cohort compared with the 2009-2010 cohort (adjusted HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91-0.93). The risk of PET insertion also decreased 24% among the cohorts.
The reduced risk of the first otitis media episode was also related to an overall reduction in the risk of subsequent and recurrent infections.
Wiese and colleagues wrote that although positive changes in the risk of otitis media have occurred following PCV13 introduction, “the burden of otitis media remains substantial and additional preventive interventions are needed.” – by Katherine Bortz
Disclosures: Wiese reports no relevant financial disclosures. Please see the study for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.