Sarcopenia increases mortality risk by 143% in patients with chronic renal disease
A meta-analysis revealed the presence of sarcopenia increased the risk for death by 143% in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic renal disease.
The finding suggests “the routine evaluation of the diagnosis of sarcopenia in these patients may be a protective event of morbidity and mortality in this group, since muscle complications in this phase may still be reversible,” Tarcisio Santana Gomes, MSc, a postdoctoral student in food, nutrition and health at Federal University of Bahia in Brazil, and colleagues wrote.
The researchers conducted a meta-analysis of results from prospective studies concerning sarcopenia and its association with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic renal disease. Gomes and colleagues collected study results from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS published between December 2018 to April 20, 2019; survey results were updated in January of 2021. To compare results despite variability, the researchers applied random effect models on the four articles that passed the inclusion criteria.
Sarcopenia prevalence in the four included studies ranged from 5.9% to 62.6%. The single study that evaluated the risk of cardiovascular events found a hazards ratio of 1.97 in patients with chronic renal disease and sarcopenia. When Gomes and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis, they found a 143% increased mortality risk in patients with sarcopenia compared with those without sarcopenia (HR = 2.43). Inflammation caused from chronic kidney disease can promote muscle loss in patients, the researchers observed.
The limited number of eligible articles for this meta-analysis restricted their findings, Gomes and colleagues noted.
“A higher mortality risk was associated with sarcopenia in each of the studies included in this meta-analysis, regardless of the method used for the diagnosis of sarcopenia (HR = 1.33-3.58),” they wrote. “Therefore, the risk of mortality caused by sarcopenia in these patients is independent of the methods used and the cutting points adopted in clinical
practice and the need for this evaluation to be performed early in order to establish nutritional barriers that avoid or minimize installation.”