10 stories for World Mosquito Day
For this year’s World Mosquito Day, the CDC called attention to the “worrying” spread of Anopheles stephensi — an urban mosquito that spreads quickly in man-made habitats.
According to CDC, in recent years A. stephensi has spread from its native habitat of Southern Asia to Eastern Africa, where its arrival in Djibouti was followed by a “startling increase” in urban malaria cases.
“The simultaneous emergence of A. stephensi and the rise in urban malaria cases raises the possibility that the newly introduced species is responsible for increased malaria transmission,” the CDC said.
There were 228 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2018, including 405,000 deaths, according to the CDC. There are an estimated 3,000 types of mosquitos, covering a wide variety of different habitats and feeding on people and animals.
“The introduction of any new mosquito into an area with malaria is a concern,” the CDC said. “The fact that A. stephensi occupies a different niche than Anopheles arabiensis” — a primary vector of malaria in Eastern Africa — “means that public health workers may need to carry out more intensive mosquito control in urban areas.”
In observance of World Mosquito Day, we collected 10 stories related to mosquito-borne illness from the past year.
Q&A: Microbe shows potential as new tool for malaria control
Healio spoke with Jeremy K. Herren, PhD, a research scientist at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi, Kenya, about the discovery of a microbe in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitos that demonstrated impairment of a common malaria parasite. Read more.
Climate change: A growing threat to children’s health
Research suggests mosquito life cycles are heavily influenced by environmental temperatures. Rising air temperatures due to climate change may result in higher mosquito bite frequencies as a result. Read more.
Triple E: A severe zoonotic disease
Easter equine encephalitis (EEE) is common in horses but rarely infects humans. In 2019, a dramatic increase in EEE was observed among humans in the United States. Read more.
New chemical formulation fights resistance in malaria bed nets
Study results from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Annual Meeting suggested long-lasting insecticidal nets augmented with a chemical component were more effective at eradicating malaria parasites than conventional nets using just pyrethroid. Read more.
Global report shows again that progress against malaria has slowed
According to the annual World Malaria Report, there was no improvement in malaria infection rates in countries with high disease burden, and progress toward disease eradication remained stagnant. Read more.
Range of Aedes mosquitoes in US ‘uncertain’
A study showed significant gaps in model-based predictions of Aedes mosquito populations in the United States, with the authors noting that the geographic range of the species remains “uncertain.” Read more.
Dengue cases plummet in Wolbachia-treated areas of several countries
Findings presented at the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Annual Meeting revealed that dengue cases dropped significantly in countries where lab-grown mosquitos with Wolbachia were released, including Brazil, Indonesia, Australia and Vietnam. Read more.
Phase 1 study identifies well-tolerated dengue challenge strain
A dengue challenge strain that was well tolerated and caused “uncomplicated dengue illness” may be suitable for dengue human infection models for vaccine testing and therapeutics. Read more.
Does climate change facilitate the spread and transmission of dengue?
In 2019, experts estimated 60% of the global population will be at risk for dengue. Healio asked Duane J. Gubler, ScD, FAAS, FIDSA, FASTMH, chair of the Global Dengue & Aedes-Transmitted Diseases Consortium and emeritus professor of emerging infectious diseases at Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore, what impact climate change may have on transmission of the virus. Read more.
Zika-exposed infants without congenital Zika syndrome at risk for abnormal neurodevelopment
A study published in JAMA Pediatrics demonstrated that infants without congenital Zika who were exposed to Zika in utero are at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes during their early life. Read more.