7 recent reports on the microbiome
Healio Gastroenterology presents the following reports on the most recent research in the microbiome.
These reports include research on the impact of the microbiome on obesity, asthma and COVID-19.
Link between gut microbiome, diet may reduce risk for health problems
A healthy diet may be linked with gut microbes that correlate with a lower risk for developing conditions including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, according to a report published in Nature Medicine.
“This study demonstrates a clear association between specific microbial species in the gut, certain foods and risk of some common diseases," Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH, a gastroenterologist, chief of the clinical and translational epidemiology unit at Massachusetts General Hospital, and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, said in a press release. "We hope to be able to use this information to help people avoid serious health problems by changing their diet to personalize their gut microbiome.” READ MORE
Gut microbiome composition impacts severity of COVID-19
Correlation between gut microbiota composition, cytokine levels and inflammatory markers among COVID-19 patients demonstrated the gut microbiome is linked with the severity of COVID-19, according to a study in Gut.
“[This] survey of gut microbiota alterations in association with immune dysregulation revealed that gut microorganisms are likely involved in the modulation of host inflammatory responses in COVID-19,” Yun Kit Yeoh, MD, from the department of microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, and colleagues wrote. “With mounting evidence that gut microorganisms are linked with inflammatory diseases within and beyond the gut, these findings underscore an urgent need to understand the specific roles of gut microorganisms in human immune function and systemic inflammation.” READ MORE
Decreases in pediatric asthma linked to reduced antibiotics, changes in gut bacteria
The incidence of asthma in children declined 26% from 2000 to 2014 in British Columbia, Canada, and researchers have linked the decrease to reductions in early antibiotic exposure, mediated by changes in gut microbiota.
“At both the population-level and individual-level, this study shows a robust association between antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and an increased risk of asthma in early childhood,” David M. Patrick, PhD, professor and infectious disease specialist at the School of Population and Public Health and medical epidemiology lead for antimicrobial resistance at the British Columbia Center for Disease Control, and colleagues wrote in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. “The gut microbiota was found to be a significant mediator between antibiotics and asthma and the six bacterial taxa that differed in their relative abundance between antibiotic-exposed, asthmatic children and nonexposed, non-asthmatic children have established links with immunomodulatory functions.” READ MORE
Microbiome drug reduces recurrent CDI
The investigational oral microbiome drug CP101 helped prevent recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection across a broad population of patients, according to research presented at UEG Week Virtual.
In her presentation, Jessica Allegretti, MD, from Brigham & Women’s Hospital, said recurrent CDI is associated with loss of microbiome diversity and impaired colonization resistance. CP101 (Finch Therapeutics) was designed to prevent that. READ MORE
Q&A: New breath test adds hydrogen sulfide to better understand the microbiome in patients
Recently, the small intestine bacterial overgrowth breath test was launched by Cedars-Sinai to diagnose small intestine bacterial overgrowth related to irritable bowel syndrome.
Healio Gastroenterology spoke with Mark Pimentel, MD, executive director of the medically associated science and technology (MAST) program at Cedars-Sinai, on how GIs can use the breath test and what this new device means for patient care. READ MORE
Childhood antibiotic use linked with appendicitis risk
Use of antibiotics during childhood had a dose-dependent relationship with increased risk for appendicitis, according to study results.
“Genetic and environmental factors as well as pathologic alterations of the microbiota in the appendix have been identified as potential risk factors,” Jacob Antonsen, of the digestive disease center at Bispebjerg Hospital in Denmark, and colleagues wrote. “Several studies have shown an altered composition of the microbiota in specimens of appendicitis, but it remains unclear whether the microbial changes are a trigger or a consequence of appendicitis.” READ MORE
FMT safe, well tolerated for recurrent CDI in IBD
Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was safe and well tolerated and resulted in a high rate of C. difficile decolonization, according to a study published in Gastroenterology.
“Additionally, positioning FMT earlier in the treatment course for patients with IBD-CDI may improve FMT failure rates,” Jessica R. Allegretti, MD, MPH, of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Crohn’s and Colitis Center, and colleagues wrote. READ MORE