American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions

American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions

Source:

Harnois-Leblanc S, et al. 22-OR. Presented at: American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions; June 25-29, 2021 (virtual meeting).

Disclosures: Harnois-Leblanc reports no relevant financial disclosures. Please see the study abstract for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.
June 27, 2021
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More physical activity, less sedentary behavior can improve children’s insulin sensitivity

Source:

Harnois-Leblanc S, et al. 22-OR. Presented at: American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions; June 25-29, 2021 (virtual meeting).

Disclosures: Harnois-Leblanc reports no relevant financial disclosures. Please see the study abstract for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.
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Children who have at least one parent with obesity can improve insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion with more physical activity and less sedentary behavior, according to a speaker.

Soren Harnois-Leblanc, RD, MSc, a PhD candidate at the University of Montreal in Quebec, said promoting physical activity for children could be an effective strategy for preventing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

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“Our study found that higher physical activity levels and lower screen time during childhood and adolescence lead to greater insulin sensitivity and lower insulin secretory requirements in late adolescence,” Harnois-Leblanc said during a virtual presentation at the American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions.

Harnois-Leblanc and colleagues analyzed prospective data from the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) Cohort. The study cohort included children aged 8 to 10 years with one or both biological parents with obesity. Participants were first evaluated at age 8 to 10 years and then again at age 10 to 12 years, and finally at age 15 to 17 years. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed through a 7-day accelerometry record. An oral glucose tolerance test measured insulin sensitivity and secretion. Confounders included in the analysis were age, sex, pubertal stage, body fat percentage, diet quality index, energy intake, sleep duration, cardiorespiratory fitness, screen time, physical activity, family income and history of diabetes in parents.

There were 630 participants evaluated at age 8 to 10 years, 564 at age 10 to 12 years and 377 at age 15 to 17 years. Physical activity declined from age 8 to 10 years to 15 to 17 years. Sedentary time increased over time, with a steep increase from age 10 to 12 years to 15 to 17 years.

Every 10 minutes of daily physical activity from childhood to late adolescence was associated with a 4.8% decrease in second-phase insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity (95% CI, –8.1 to –1.4). Each 1 hour of screen time per day was associated with an 8.7% decrease in insulin sensitivity (95% CI, –14.5 to –2.9), a 6.9% increase in first-phase insulin secretion (95% CI, 0.8-13) and a 6.5% increase in second-phase insulin secretion (95% CI, 0.4-12.5).

Both 10 minutes of daily physical activity and 1 hour of screen time daily were associated with slight increases in fasting glucose. However, Harnois-Leblanc noted neither association was clinically meaningful, with the average causal effect below 0.05 mmol/L. Each increase in 1 hour of sedentary time daily assessed by the accelerometer led to 0.12 mmol/L (95% CI, –0.00001 to 0.24) higher 2-hour glucose levels in late adolescence.

“Our study suggests that promoting physical activity and lowering sedentary behaviors during childhood and adolescence improves insulin sensitivity and reduces insulin secretion, and possibly 2-hour glucose in late adolescence,” Harnois-Leblanc said. “All of this contributes to the prevention of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes among white Canadian children with parental obesity.”