Disordered sleep raises dementia risk in new-onset type 2 diabetes
Sleep disorders are significantly associated with an increased risk for dementia among adults with new-onset type 2 diabetes, according to an analysis of Korean registry data.
“In the present study, sleep disorders had differential effects on subtypes of dementia,” Jae Woo Choi, PhD, of the Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Science at Yonsei University in Incheon, South Korea, and Dallae Jin, of the department of biostatistics at Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine in South Korea, wrote. “Sleep disorders increased the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, but had no influence on vascular dementia. Although positive significant association [between] sleep disorders and Alzheimer’s disease was well established, previous evidence for vascular dementia were unclear.”
Choi and Jin analyzed data from 39,135 adults aged at least 40 years with new-onset type 2 diabetes between 2004 and 2007, using Korean Health Screening Cohort data. The cohort was followed through 2013. Researchers measured sleep disorders as a primary diagnosis via ICD-10 codes and used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted HRs for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and other dementia.
Within the cohort, Choi and Jin identified 2,059 events of dementia during an average follow-up of 5.7 years. Among adults with type 2 diabetes, those with sleep disorders were 46% more likely to have all-cause dementia (adjusted HR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.8), 39% more likely to have Alzheimer’s disease (aHR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and 69% more likely to have other dementia (aHR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.31) vs. those without sleep disorders.
Additionally, Choi and Jin found that among adults with type 2 diabetes, men and older adults with sleep disorders had higher risks for dementia compared with those without sleep disorders, with adjusted HRs of 1.93 (95% CI, 1.42-2.62) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.35-2.15), respectively.
“[The] present study of the Korean population verified that sleep disorders are significantly associated with an increased risk of dementia in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes,” Choi and Jin wrote. “This study suggests that fastidious investigation and adequate management of sleep disorders among the patients with type 2 diabetes may be useful and relevant ways to prevent dementia partly.”
Choi and Jin noted that they could not identify the severity of dementia from medical records and could not assess the relationship between subtypes of sleep disorders and dementia due to limited data.