Severe periodontitis tied to type 2 diabetes
Compared with those without diabetes, adults with type 2 diabetes may be more likely to have severe periodontitis, and insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the disease.
Jun-Beom Park, DDS, MSD, PhD, of the department of periodontics at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea in Seoul, and colleagues evaluated data from the 2008 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 5,690 adults aged at least 30 years with periodontal disease with community periodontal index of 3 or 4. Researchers sought to determine the relationships between diabetes, insulin resistance and severe periodontitis.
Severe periodontitis was more common among men (P < .001), older adults (P = .03), current smokers (P < .001) and heavy alcohol drinkers (P = .017). Compared with participants with normal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have severe periodontitis (P < .001). Prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = .012), high systolic blood pressure (P = .029), high serum glucose (P < .001), high serum triglycerides (P = .023) and high white blood cell count (P < .001) was greater among participants with severe periodontitis. Higher values of insulin resistance were also associated with severe periodontitis (P = .003).
Prevalence of severe periodontitis was highest among men and women aged 50 to 59 years (men, P < .001; women, P = .004).
Higher odds of severe periodontitis were found among participants with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance in the highest quartile despite BMI or waist circumference in the non-obese range, compared with participants with metabolically healthy normal weight, although this relationship did not reach statistical significance for BMI (waist circumference, OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.87).
“Insulin resistance without abdominal obesity can be considered an independent risk indicator of periodontal disease,” the researchers wrote. “Dental practitioners and physicians should be aware that metabolically obese individuals with normal weight need lifestyle modifications to reduce their risk of [type 2 diabetes] and chronic periodontitis. Physical activity and toothbrushing instruction might be required to reduce the aggravating interaction between these diseases.” – by Amber Cox
Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.