September 03, 2015
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What is endocrinology?

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Endocrinology is a field in biology and medicine that deals with the endocrine system. The organs involved in the endocrine system include the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovaries, testes and pancreas. These glands secrete hormones into the blood. Hormones of the endocrine system perform a variety of functions, and some hormones may have different effects depending on which organ is targeted. Organs may be targeted by a number of different hormones.

Endocrinopathy or endocrinosis are the terms used for diseases of the endocrine system. However, these conditions are often called hormone imbalances. Endocrinology may involve diagnosing and treating diseases of this system. Diagnosis often encompasses evaluating for a variety of symptoms and requires knowledge of clinical chemistry and biochemistry. Many laboratory tests also are used, including diagnostic imaging. Managing these diseases often requires long-term treatment and may involve treating the patient as a whole and maintaining observation of changes at the cellular or molecular level.

Endocrinologists must deal with many systems within the body, and researchers in the endocrinology field have tried to determine how the glands work. Researchers have also developed new drugs and treatments for hormone problems.

Other concerns of endocrinology include the integration of developmental events such as proliferation, growth and differentiation. Processes of differentiation may include histogenesis and organogenesis. Endocrinology also entails the coordination of many of the body’s systems, including metabolism, respiration, excretion, movement, reproduction and sensory perception. These systems may be examined on a chemical or cellular level and are observed based on chemical cues and secretions by various organs within the body.

Diseases, treatments

Endocrine diseases are caused when hormone levels are too high or too low, or when the body does not react to hormones the way it is supposed to.

The most common endocrine disease in the U.S. is diabetes. However, other conditions treated within endocrinology include osteoporosis, menopause, obesity, short stature, thyroid disease, hypertension and infertility.

Treatments typically involve controlling the amount of hormone the body produces, and, in cases of hormone deficiency, the use of hormone supplements. 

Becoming an endocrinologist

After medical school, several years of internship and residency in the fields of pediatrics or obstetrics and gynecology, besides specific instruction about hormone diseases, are required before a clinician can become an endocrinologist.

Many professional organizations are dedicated to endocrinology, largely because the field encompasses a number of the body’s systems and functions.

Additional information may be found at these websites:

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/cgi/collection/gene_expression

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003706.htm

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/metabolism/WT00006/

http://www.nature.com/jcbfm/index.html

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/

http://www.hormone.org/Public/endocrinologist.cfm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002257.htm

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22/?depth=10

http://endo.endojournals.org/

http://www.mayoclinic.org/medicalprofs/glucocorticoid-induced-diabetes.html

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/estrogenreceptors

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2099

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=enzyme

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002353.htm

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/endocrinediseases.html

http://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/endocrinology/