In a published study, researchers suggested a diet high in vegetables and fruit could serve as a modifiable factor to help reduce the risk of chronic kidney disease.
“Among ingested dietary components, dietary acid is thought to promote the progression of CKD; a higher dietary acid load can cause metabolic acidosis and lead to increased risk for kidney disease progression,” Jong Hyun Jhee, MD, of the division of nephrology and hypertension in the department of internal medicine at Inha University College of Medicine in South Korea, and colleagues wrote. “Thus, a dietary balance between acid-producing (eg, animal sources of protein) and base-producing (eg, vegetables and fruit) foods is important.”
To examine whether vegetable and fruit intake was associated with lower CKD risk, researchers conducted a community-based prospective cohort study of 9,229 adults with normal kidney function (mean eGFR, 93.9 mL/min/1.37m2). Daily food consumption was assessed through responses to a food frequency questionnaire and classified into tertiles (lowest, middle and highest intakes of both fermented and nonfermented fruits and vegetables).
Participants were followed for a mean of 8.2 years. During this time, 1,741 participants developed eGFRs less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2.
Researchers found that incident eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 was less likely in those who had a higher intake of nonfermented vegetables (22.8 per 1,000 person years for lowest consumers; 22.7 for the middle tertile; 20.1 for the highest tertile). Furthermore, compared with participants in the lowest tertile, those in the highest tertile of nonfermented vegetable intake had a 14% lower risk for incident eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and a 32% lower risk for proteinuria.
A diet high in vegetables and fruit could serve as a modifiable factor to help reduce the risk of chronic kidney disease.
Source: Adobe Stock
In addition, the highest tertiles of fermented vegetable and fruit intake were associated with 14% and 45% lower risks for incident proteinuria, respectively. Researchers addressed that fermented vegetables and fruit did not appear to decrease the risk for eGFR reduction, proposing this is due to the sodium content which is known to be harmful to kidney function and is associated with CKD development.
It was further determined that, while estimated net endogenous acid production increased in the lowest tertile of both nonfermented or fermented vegetables and fruit intake, it decreased in the highest tertile.
“Our findings support those of previous studies that have examined the effect of base-producing foods on kidney function,” the researchers wrote. “These [results] may be explained by the reduction in dietary acid load owing to intake of base-producing foods and partly by the higher potassium intake. Our findings suggest that dietary modification may prevent CKD development in healthy adults and may have potential as a cost effective-risk lowering strategy.” – by Melissa J. Webb
Disclosures: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.