Psychiatric Annals

CME Article 

Expression of Depressive Symptoms, Regional Variations: A Comparison of Three Cities in Pakistan

Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit; Dr. Gerry J. Mugford

Abstract

Rates of depression are alarming, and depression appears to be a global issue. Regional depression is attributable to a number of factors, including economic problems, political upheavals, violence, upsurge of physical illnesses, and disruption of the general social fabric. In any given 1-year period, 9.5% of the U.S. population, or about 20.9 million American adults, suffer from a depressive illness. An estimate from developing countries indicates 50.8 million people suffer from major depression. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in 14 countries showed 24% of primary care attendees worldwide received an International Classification of Diseases-10 (IDC) psychiatric diagnosis, the most common of which was current depressive episode.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit is with the Discipline of Psychiatry; and Dr. Gerry J. Mugford is with the Departments of Pharmacy, Medicine, and Psychiatry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.

Address correspondence to: Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, NL A1B 3V6 Canada; or e-mail amin.muhammad@med.mun.ca.

Dr. Gadit and Dr. Mugford have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Identify the regional differences in expression of depressive symptoms.
  2. Compare the findings in a cross-cultural perspective.
  3. Discuss the need for prospective studies in this area of research.

Abstract

Rates of depression are alarming, and depression appears to be a global issue. Regional depression is attributable to a number of factors, including economic problems, political upheavals, violence, upsurge of physical illnesses, and disruption of the general social fabric. In any given 1-year period, 9.5% of the U.S. population, or about 20.9 million American adults, suffer from a depressive illness. An estimate from developing countries indicates 50.8 million people suffer from major depression. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in 14 countries showed 24% of primary care attendees worldwide received an International Classification of Diseases-10 (IDC) psychiatric diagnosis, the most common of which was current depressive episode.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit is with the Discipline of Psychiatry; and Dr. Gerry J. Mugford is with the Departments of Pharmacy, Medicine, and Psychiatry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.

Address correspondence to: Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, NL A1B 3V6 Canada; or e-mail amin.muhammad@med.mun.ca.

Dr. Gadit and Dr. Mugford have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Identify the regional differences in expression of depressive symptoms.
  2. Compare the findings in a cross-cultural perspective.
  3. Discuss the need for prospective studies in this area of research.

Rates of depression are alarming, and depression appears to be a global issue. Regional depression is attributable to a number of factors, including economic problems, political upheavals, violence, upsurge of physical illnesses, and disruption of the general social fabric. In any given 1-year period, 9.5% of the U.S. population, or about 20.9 million American adults, suffer from a depressive illness. An estimate from developing countries indicates 50.8 million people suffer from major depression. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in 14 countries showed 24% of primary care attendees worldwide received an International Classification of Diseases-10 (IDC) psychiatric diagnosis, the most common of which was current depressive episode.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit is with the Discipline of Psychiatry; and Dr. Gerry J. Mugford is with the Departments of Pharmacy, Medicine, and Psychiatry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.

Address correspondence to: Dr. Amin A. Muhammad Gadit, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, NL A1B 3V6 Canada; or e-mail amin.muhammad@med.mun.ca.

Dr. Gadit and Dr. Mugford have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  1. Identify the regional differences in expression of depressive symptoms.
  2. Compare the findings in a cross-cultural perspective.
  3. Discuss the need for prospective studies in this area of research.

10.3928/00485713-20080701-03

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