EXPERT SUMMARIES of the top 30 journals in infectious disease
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Bacterial pneumonia most common cause of unexpected infectious death

Sehgal P, et al. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/ofid/ofz081.
Bacterial pneumonia was implicated in 43% of all community-based, unexpected infectious disease deaths during a recent 2-year period in one Canadian…
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Data mining EHRs can rapidly identify hospital outbreaks

Sundermann AJ, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019;doi:10.1017/ice.2018.343.
Data mining of an electronic health record, or EHR, accurately identified transmission routes among patients involved in hospital disease outbreaks…
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Nitazoxanide not beneficial for treatment of severe acute respiratory illness

Gamiño-Arroyo AE, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/cid/ciz100.
Adding nitazoxanide to standard of care for the treatment of children and adults with severe acute respiratory infections was safe, but it did not…
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Origami-inspired malaria field test performs similarly to PCR

Reboud J, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019;doi:10.1073/pnas.1812296116.
A low-cost, DNA-based paper field test inspired by the art of origami was able to rapidly diagnose malaria species in Ugandan school children and…
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Measuring vancomycin use by days of therapy underestimates exposure

Murakami S, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019;doi:10.1017/ice.2018.364.
Using days of therapy, or DOT, to estimate vancomycin use may underestimate exposure to the antibiotic by around 10% compared with therapeutic…
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Large dental practice cuts antibiotic prescribing by 73%

Gross AE, et al. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;
A large academic dental practice saw a nearly 73% decrease in antibiotic prescribing after implementing a comprehensive antibiotic stewardship…
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Early follow-up associated with lower risk for readmission in OPAT patients

Saini E, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/cid/ciz073.
Among patients receiving outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy, or OPAT, follow-up with an infectious disease physician within 2 weeks was…
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Re-exposure to antibiotics increases risk for VRE recolonization

Hughes HY, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019;doi:10.1017/ice.2019.15.
Findings from a retrospective cohort study showed that colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or VRE, is significantly associated with…
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Early flu treatment associated with 30% lower mortality from H3N2

Lytras T, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/cid/ciz101.
Early treatment with oseltamivir was associated with a 30% lower mortality rate compared with later treatment in patients with influenza A(H3N2)…
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Among injection drug users, HIV more prevalent in women than men

Leung J, et al. J Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/infdis/jiz058.
Study findings showed a higher prevalence of HIV among women who inject drugs compared with men, and researchers recommended developing…
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Work-related infectious diseases most common in certain industries

Su, C-P, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.3201/eid2503.180708.
Cases of work-related infectious disease in the United States are concentrated in certain industries and occupations, particularly among health care…
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Mandatory screening helped stop TB outbreak among Atlanta homeless

Holland DP, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.3201/eid2503.181678.
A comprehensive public health approach that included mandatory screening helped stop an outbreak of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Atlanta homeless…
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PD-1 blockade may increase risk for, severity of TB infection

Barber DL, et al. Sci Transl Med. 2019;doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aat2702
A type of cancer immunotherapy may increase the risk for and severity of tuberculosis infection, according to a recent report. The outcomes of two…
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Traditional risk factors ‘contribute greatly’ to disease in adults with HIV

Althoff KN, et al. Lancet HIV. 2019:doi:10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30295-9.
Study findings showed that traditional risk factors such as smoking, high cholesterol, hypertension and chronic hepatitis C virus infection…
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Monitoring vancomycin AUCs may prevent kidney injury

Aljefri DM, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/cid/ciz051.
The risk for acute kidney injury may be reduced if vancomycin area under the curve dosing measured within the first or second 24 hours is lower than…
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