Over the past decade, significant declines were seen in total deaths and age-standardized death rates for many of the world’s communicable diseases, according to findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study.
“Amid these gains, less pronounced progress occurred for several communicable diseases, and fatalities climbed rapidly for others, such as the Ebola virus disease,” researchers wrote in a far-ranging report published in The Lancet.
According to the report, several factors drove a decrease in total deaths and age-standardized death rates between 2005 and 2015 for communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases, including continued progress against HIV/AIDS and malaria.
HIV/AIDS deaths fell 33.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 30-36.2) between 2005 and 2015, from 1.8 million (95% UI, 1.7 million to 1.9 million) to 1.2 million (95% UI, 1.1 million to 1.3 million), while age-standardized death rates dropped 42.1% (95% UI, 39.1-44.6), according to the researchers. Expansion of ART and reducing the rate of mother-to-child transmission were factors in the decrease in HIV/AIDS–related mortality, they said.
Malaria deaths declined 37.4% (95% UI, 27.8-47) in the same period to 730,500 (95% UI, 555,800-904,000), while age-standardized death rates fell 43.1% (95% UI, 34.7-51.8). The researchers said there have been “sustained” gains against malaria, which killed an estimated 1.2 million people in 2003.
Among other developments in the report, as noted by the researchers:
- Mortality rates declined for diarrheal disease, tetanus, measles and African trypanosomiasis.
- Slower progress was made among certain diseases such as tuberculosis, which killed an estimated 500,000 fewer people than HIV/AIDS in 2005, but was responsible for only approximately 100,000 fewer deaths than HIV/AIDS by 2015 (TB deaths decreased 17.4%).
- Total mortality rates due to lower respiratory infections and meningitis remained “fairly constant.”
- Significant reductions in deaths due to hepatitis A virus drove down hepatitis-related mortality rates.
- Deaths due to dengue, leishmaniasis and Ebola increased.
Overall global life expectancy from birth increased from 61.7 years (95% UI, 61.4-61.9) to 71.8 (95% UI, 71.5-72.2) years between 1980 and 2015, according to the report. Researchers said advancements in the fight against HIV/AIDS led to “very large gains” in life expectancy in several sub-Saharan African countries between 2005 and 2015. – by Gerard Gallagher
Disclosures: Please see the full study for a list of all authors’ relevant financial disclosures.