An increased intake of vegetables, but not fruit, was associated with a lower risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, according to new study data.
Researchers conducted a meta-analysis with 19 studies (10 cohort and nine case-control) published in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase between 1956 and May 2014. There were more than 1.2 million patients and 3,912 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) included in the final analyses. Researchers calculated relative risks through random-effects models and evaluated heterogeneity using Cochran’s Q and 12 statistics, to determine any associations between vegetable and fruit consumption and HCC risk.
Nine studies were used for the dose-response analysis of vegetables and showed an RR of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.88-0.96) for HCC per increased daily intake of 100 g vegetables with 86.3% heterogeneity (P<.001). A curvilinear relationship also was observed between HCC risk and vegetable intake (P<.01). As vegetable intake increased, heterogeneity decreased.
Eight studies were used to analyze dose-response for fruit. RR was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.94-1.05) for HCC per increased daily intake of 100 g fruit with high heterogeneity (P<.01). A nonlinear association between HCC risk and fruit was not seen (P=.74). Design (P=.04), location (P=.02) and diet assessment (P=.04) methods were sources of heterogeneity.
“Results of this study indicated that a daily increase of 100 grams of vegetables was associated with an 8% lower risk of HCC,” the researchers wrote. “The findings should be confirmed by future studies with validated questionnaires and strict control of confounders.”
Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.