SAN DIEGO — Levels of the anti-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A act as serological diagnostic biomarkers for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and can help distinguish between the two conditions, according to a study presented at Digestive Disease Week.
It is often difficult to determine whether patients have UC or Crohn’s disease because both conditions have similar symptoms and pathobiology, Rizwan Ahmad, PhD, from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, told Healio Gastroenterology.
Ahmad and colleagues conducted a study to investigate whether malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct (MAA) antibodies can effectively distinguish between UC and Crohn’s disease with high confidence.
The researchers collected serum samples from a total of 131 individuals. Diagnoses included UC (n = 79), Crohn’s disease (n = 20) and lymphocytic colitis (n = 8). Healthy controls were also included (n = 24). They used the ELISA assessment to analyze the serum samples for levels of MAA antibody isotypes, including IgG, IgM and IgA.
Patients with lymphocytic colitis demonstrated markedly elevated levels of IgM compared with healthy controls and those with UC and Crohn’s disease (P < .0001). There was no significant difference in IgM levels among healthy controls and those with UC and Crohn’s disease.
Patients with UC showed substantially increased levels of IgG and IgA, compared with healthy controls and those with Crohn’s disease and lymphocytic colitis (P < .001 for all). There was no significant difference in IgG or IgA levels among healthy controls and those with Crohn’s disease and lymphocytic colitis (P < .001).
These findings validate that, “if we do a serum analysis of anti-MAA antibodies, we can differentiate between UC and Crohn’s disease,” Ahmad said. – by Alaina Tedesco
Ahmad R, et al. Su1913. Presented at: Digestive Disease Week; May 18-21, 2019; San Diego.
Disclosures: Ahmad reports no relevant financial disclosures. Please see the abstract for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.