A low-calorie diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products resulted in beneficial effects on BMI, insulin metabolism, free androgen index, anti-Müllerian hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and overweight or obesity, study data show.
Zatollah Asemi, PhD, of the department of nutrition, Kashan University of Medical Sciences in Iran, and colleagues randomly assigned women with PCOS and overweight or obesity to a low-calorie Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (n = 30) or a control diet (n = 30) for 12 weeks to determine the effect of each diet on weight loss, anti-Müllerian hormone levels and metabolic profiles.
Both diets were designed to contain 52% to 55% carbohydrates, 16% to 18% protein and 30% total fats; however, the DASH diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated fats, cholesterol, refined grains and sweets.
Compared with the control group, the DASH diet group experienced greater reductions in weight (P = .01) and BMI (P = .02).
Compared with the control diet, the DASH diet resulted in decreased anti-Müllerian hormone (P = .01), insulin (P = .02), homeostasis model of assessment (HOMA) for insulin resistance (P = .02), HOMA for beta-cell function (P = .03), free androgen index (P = .02) and plasma malondialdehyde (P < .001), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P = .02), serum SHBG (P = .01) and plasma nitric oxide (P < .001).
“This suggests adherence to the low-calorie DASH diet may confer advantageous therapeutic potential for PCOS women. Further studies should measure gene expression related to insulin, inflammation and oxidative stress to explore the plausible mechanism and to confirm our findings,” the researchers wrote. – by Amber Cox
Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.