Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have a significantly reduced percentage of efficient and deep sleep time vs. healthy controls, leading to poor glycemic control, according to study findings presented at the ninth annual International Conference on Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes.
“We put in maximal effort to improve metabolic control of type 1 diabetes (insulin pumps, bolus calculator, temporary basal, electronic communication, psychological support) in patients with non-optimal metabolic control,” Miriam Ciljakova, PhD, of Comenius University, Bratislava, and University Hospital Martin, Slovakia, told Endocrine Today. “We want to again examine polysomnographic parameters and try to give a partial answer to the question: How can metabolic control of type 1 diabetes influence sleep?”
Ciljakova and colleagues
Ciljakova and colleagues analyzed data from 30 children with type 1 diabetes (15 boys; mean age, 15 years; mean diabetes duration, 9.25 years) and 10 healthy controls (five boys; mean age, 14 years). All children underwent standard evening polysomnographic examination; children with type 1 diabetes wore continuous glucose monitors (during polysomnography, day before and day after). Researchers compared sensor glucose levels with blood glucose; children with hypoglycemia were excluded. Researchers measured average sensor glucose, glucose variability, bedtime glucose and HbA1c in children with diabetes.
Researchers found that children with type 1 diabetes had a reduced percentage of time spent in deep sleep, with 25.71% of sleep time spent in the non-REM3 stage vs. 36.02% for controls (P < .05). Efficiency of deep sleep was also reduced in children with diabetes vs. controls (41.42% vs. 54.46%; P < .001).
Efficiency of deep sleep negative correlated with HbA1c (r = –0.71); average sensor glucose (r = –0.51); glucose variability (r = –0.46) and bedtime glucose (r = –0.41).
“Subjects with [type 1 diabetes] showed significantly reduced percentage of deep sleep time and decreased efficiency of deep sleep that strongly correlated with nonoptimal, long-term metabolic control,” the researchers wrote. “Further studies are needed to determine whether changes of sleep architecture can play a role in metabolic control in children with [type 1 diabetes].”
“The quantity and quality of sleep can be important for glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes,” Ciljakova told Endocrine Today. “Pediatric endocrinologist should put more emphasize on sleep hygiene in patients with diabetes. – by Regina Schaffer
Ciljakova M, et al. Poster #105. Presented at: ATTD Annual Meeting; Feb. 3-6, 2016; Milan.
Disclosure: Ciljakova reports no relevant financial disclosures.