Satiety hormone secretion in men may be increased after eating a plant-based meal compared with a meal consisting of processed meat and cheese, according to findings published in Nutrients.
“Gastrointestinal hormones are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, satiety and weight management,” Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, director of clinical research at the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine in Washington, D.C., and colleagues wrote. “Furthermore, the satiety hormones GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide and amylin regulate appetite and energy homeostasis. The release of these satiety hormones can depend on meal composition and differs between impaired and normoglycemia.”
As part of a randomized crossover study, Kahleova and colleagues recruited 60 adult men from the hospital database of the Thomayer Hospital and Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague. Recruitment took place between June 2015 and June 2017.
Among the cohort, 20 men had type 2 diabetes (mean age, 47.8 years; mean BMI, 34.5 kg/m2), 20 had obesity (mean age, 43 years; mean BMI, 32.7 kg/m2) and 20 were healthy men with neither condition (mean age, 42.7 years; mean BMI, 23.8 kg/m2). Men in the diabetes and obesity groups were BMI-matched, and all groups were age-matched.
Participants underwent two study visits and were randomly assigned to a meal made up of a processed meat and cheese burger or a plant-based tofu burger during their first visit. Each participant was then assigned to the second meal option on their second visit. Both meals were matched for energy and macronutrient content. Before meals, each participant fasted between 10 and 12 hours overnight. Measurements for plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones were taken at baseline, and then at 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after the meal. Satiety was self-reported at each time point as well.
Men with type 2 diabetes exhibited increased postprandial secretion of GLP-1 after the plant-based meal (30.5%; 95% CI, 21.2-40.7), as did men without diabetes or obesity (15.8%; 95% CI, 8.6-23.5), the researchers wrote.
All three groups experienced an increase in amylin concentrations after the plant-based meal, with men with type 2 diabetes increasing by 15.7% (95% CI, 11.8-19.6), men with obesity increasing by 11.5% (95% CI, 7.8-15.3) and men without either condition increasing by 13.8% (95% CI, 8.4-19.5).
Men without diabetes or obesity had increased levels of PYY (18.9%; 95% CI, 7.5-31.3), but no significant difference was reported in the other two groups, according to the study.
All three groups reported greater satiety after the plant-based meal compared with the meat-based meal, including men with type 2 diabetes (9%; 95% CI, 4.4-13.6), men with obesity (18.7%; 95% CI, 12.8-24.6) and men with neither condition (25%; 95% CI, 18.2-31.7).
“The main components responsible for the beneficial effects of a plant-based meal on satiety and the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones are fiber and bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols,” the researchers wrote. “Dietary fiber may increase PYY secretion and satiety in healthy people. Additionally, resistant starch was shown to increase PYY concentrations in overweight individuals. ... The effect of additional bioactive compounds of plant foods on satiety and secretion of gastrointestinal hormones is an emerging area of research.” – by Phil Neuffer
Disclosures: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.