Adults with type 1 diabetes who consume at least 5 cups of coffee per day have an increased risk for metabolic syndrome compared with those who drink less, according to researchers.
Per-Henrik Groop, MD, PhD, professor of nephrology at the University of Helsinki in Finland, and colleagues evaluated data from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study on 1,040 adults with type 1 diabetes to determine potential associations between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome.
Participants were divided into four groups based on coffee consumption: non-consumers (< 1 cup per day; n = 134; 34.3% men; mean age, 40 years; mean diabetes duration, 21 years), low consumers (1 cup to < 3 cups per day; n = 230; 32.2% men; mean age, 46 years; mean diabetes duration, 30 years), moderate consumers (≥ 3 cups to < 5 cups per day; n = 371; 45% men; mean age, 48 years; mean diabetes duration, 27 years) or high consumers (≥ 5 cups per day; n = 305; 59.7% men; mean age, 49 years; mean diabetes duration, 29 years).
The risk for metabolic syndrome is increased in adults with type 1 diabetes who consume at least 5 cups of coffee per day.
Frequency of metabolic syndrome increased with increasing coffee consumption with the lowest rate in non-consumers (51%) followed by low consumers (64%), moderate consumers (65%) and high consumers (70%). Odds of metabolic syndrome were higher in the moderate and high consumer groups compared with the non-consumer group in the logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, alcohol intake, physical activity and smoking. Any level of coffee consumption was associated with increased odds of hypertension, the blood pressure component of metabolic syndrome. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate increased with increasing coffee consumption, whereas no differences were observed between the groups for estimated glucose disposal rate or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
“Moderate and high coffee consumption is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, while any level of coffee consumption is associated with higher odds or fulfilling the blood pressure-component of [metabolic syndrome],” the researchers wrote. “Moreover, increasing coffee intake is associated with higher eGFR. Whether habitual coffee consumption will have any negative or beneficial effects on health outcomes, in this population of patients with type 1 diabetes, will be assessed in future studies.” – by Amber Cox
Disclosures: Groop reports he received grants from Eli Lilly and Roche; is an advisory board member for AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cebix, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Medscape, Novartis, Novo Nordisk and Sanofi; and has received lecture fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Elo Water, Genzyme, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Novo Nordisk and Sanofi. Please see the study for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.