Women who consumed a large amount of milk but little fruits and vegetables had a higher risk for hip fracture than those who consumed large amounts of fermented milk, such as yogurt, combined with large amounts of fruits and vegetables, study data show.
Liisa Byberg, PhD, associate professor in the department of surgical sciences at Uppsala University in Sweden, and colleagues evaluated data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort study on 38,071 women born between 1914 and 1948 to determine how milk and fermented milk combined with fruit and vegetables are associated with hip fracture. Participants originally completed food frequency and lifestyle questionnaires from 1987 to 1990 and updated the information in 1997.
During a mean follow-up of 22 years, 5,827 women presented with hip fracture at a median age of 80.4 years. A dose-response pattern was observed between hip fracture risk and milk intake per 200 mL glass of milk (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.1). A higher consumption of fermented milk per 200 mL per day decreased the rates for hip fracture (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92), and hip fracture rates also decreased with a higher consumption of fruits of vegetables.
“Irrespective of whether the women were low or high consumers of fruits and vegetables, we found higher hip fracture rates with increasing consumption of milk,” the researchers wrote.
Compared with participants who drank less than one glass of milk and ate at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, those who consumed at least three glasses of milk and less than two servings of fruits and vegetables per day had an increased risk for hip fracture (multivariable-adjusted HR = 2.49; 95% CI, 2.03-3.05). Drinking more milk — at least three glasses — and eating more vegetables ( 5 servings per day) did not greatly reduce the risk (HR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.69-2.71). The HRs for hip fracture were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.79-2.29) for participants who consumed one to two glasses of milk with less than two servings of fruits and vegetables per day and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.03-1.35) for those who consumed at least five servings of fruits and vegetables and one to two glasses of milk per day.
“In contrast, increasing consumption of fermented milk was associated with a lower rate of hip fracture in each category of fruit and vegetable intake,” the researchers wrote.
Compared with participants who ate little fermented milk, fruits and vegetables, those who consumed at least two servings of fermented milk and at least five servings of fruit and vegetables had a decreased HR for hip fracture (0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97).
“Our observational results in this population of Swedish women question the value of recommending high consumption of milk in the prevention of fragility fractures,” the researchers wrote. “However, the results show that moderate intakes of fermented milk in combination with a high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with lower hip fracture rates.” – by Amber Cox
Disclosures: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.