8. What is Lutembacher’s syndrome?

A. Gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of severe mitral stenosis

B. Hoarseness of the voice in the setting of severe mitral stenosis

C. The combination of mitral valve stenosis and an atrial septal defect

D. A left atrial myxoma causing mitral stenosis
 

Lutembacher’s syndrome is the combination of mitral valve stenosis and a secundum-type atrial septal defect. These can be congenital or the mitral stenosis can be acquired as a part of rheumatic valvular disease.

A hoarse voice can be from Ortner’s syndrome due to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve by a markedly enlarged left atrium. Gastrointestinal bleeding has not been linked to mitral stenosis, however is associated with severe aortic valve stenosis as a part of Heyde’s syndrome. There is no specific name or syndrome associated with a left atrial myxoma, however it can be a part of the Carney Complex.