8. Which of the following is effective as a bridge to mitral valve repair or replacement in the setting of acute severe mitral valve regurgitation?

A. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation

B. NItroprusside

C. Beta-blockers

D. NItrates

E. A and B

F. All of the above
 

Reducing afterload is crucial to improve hemodynamics in the setting of acute severe mitral regurgitation. This can be achieved with intraaortic balloon counterpulsation or pharmacotherapy such as nitroprusside, hydralazine or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.