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1. Which condition must be met before carcinoid tumors can damage left heart valves?
2. Which well known figure was toxic digoxin towards the end of his life significantly affecting the way he did his work?
3. What is an Epsilon wave on an ECG and what pathology does it indicate?
4. What are the two causes of cyst-like structures in the interventricular septum on echocardiography?
5. What is Dock’s murmur?
6. What is DaCosta’s syndrome?
7. What is Auenbrugger sign?
8. What was the reason that the first discovered “statin” (HMG CoA reductase inhibitor) was never used in humans?
9. What is Twiddler’s syndrome?
10. What is the ECG finding of an atrial infarction?
11. What electrolyte abnormalities potentiate digoxin toxicity and why does this physiologically occur?
12. If a patient’s skin were to turn a bluish grey color, what cardiac medication is the likely culprit?
13. What are two causes of platypnea?
14. What is the main symptom of Ortner’s syndrome?
15. What is the name of the physiologic mechanism (reflex) that is thought to cause sinus arrhythmia?
16. What is Ewart’s sign?
17. What is the mainstay of therapy against the number one cause of heart failure in developing countries.
18. What is Shelly’s sign?
19. What is the main pharmacotherapy directed towards vagally mediated atrial fibrillation?
20. What is a Gerbode defect including the cause and treatment?
21. Why are there so many signs for aortic regurgitation?
22. What are the three Brugada Syndrome types and their corresponding ECG patterns?
23. What are the triggers for sudden cardiac death in patients with prolonged QT syndrome based on the different types of this disease?
24. What is the term for the cardiac murmur that can be heard in a patient with hyperthyroidism?
25. What is another name for a small ventricular septal defect?
26. What terminology is used to describe salvos of bradycardia from second degree type II AVB?
27. What was used to deliver therapy for heart failure hundreds of years ago that we still use in some form today?
28. What is the Ediken pattern on an ECG?
29. What are four ECG findings of hypothermia?
30. Why does intravenous infusion of amiodarone cause significant hypotension?
31. What severe regurgitant valvular lesion frequently causes no murmur despite its life threatening nature?
32. What is Cabrera’s sign?
33. What are the causes of diastolic mitral regurgitation?
34. Which aortic valve cusp is most commonly and least commonly fused in patients with bicuspid aortic valve?
35. What is the Sailer sign?
36. What is the mechanism of the bleeding diathesis that occurs in the setting of severe aortic stenosis?
37. What is the most common malignant cardiac tumor?
38. What is the name of the cardiomyopathy caused by selenium deficiency?
39. What is the Alfieri stitch?
40. How does the serum BNP (b-type natriuretic peptide) level relate to constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy? Who first described…
41. What is the Brockenbrough phenomenon?
42. What medication can frequently terminate ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricular outflow tract? From the left posterior…
43. What is the reverse Bernheim effect?
44. What causes of pericarditis do not result in any typical ECG changes that are seen classically with pericarditis?
45. Describe the Galliverdin phenomenon.
46. What is the medical therapy for coronary aneurysms? What is the surgical therapy?
47. What is Traube’s sign?
48. What is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly?
49. What is Likoff’s syndrome?
50. What term is given to the coronary anomaly in which the left main coronary artery arises from the pulmonary artery?
51. What is Wellen’s sign?
52. What coronary complication can occur from severe pulmonary hypertension?
53. What is Quincke’s sign?
54. What is the clinical significance of a left ventricular diverticulum?
55. What is the ECG finding of an aortic valve annular abscess?
56. What is the most common cause of pericarditis worldwide?
57. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia is pathognomonic for what condition?
58. What is the Bezold-Jarisch reflex?
59. What is Gerhardt’s sign?
60. What are the Sgarbossa criteria?
61. What is the Graham Steele murmur?
62. Why must an AV nodal blocking agent be used with a class 1C antiarrhythmic drug?
63. What are the Brugada morphology criteria to distinguish ventricular tachycardia from supraventricular tachycardia with aberrancy?
64. Which beta-blocker is predominantly renally cleared?
65. What is Lutembacher’s syndrome?
66. Which loop diuretic is safe to use in patient with a severe, life-threatening allergy to sulfa?
67. What three physical examination findings correlate with the severity of aortic stenosis?
68. Atrial tachycardia with 2:1 AV block is common in what cardiac condition?
69. What is Adson’s sign?
70. What is Landolfi’s sign?
71. How would Ashmans phenomenon be described?
72. What are some atypical causes of significant mitral valve stenosis?
73. Which beta-blocker has the most intrinsic sympathomimetic activity?
74. What is Barth’s syndrome?
75. What is the Bernheim effect as it relates to aortic valve stenosis?
76. What is Corrigan’s pulse?
77. What is the Romano-Ward syndrome?
78. What electrophysiologic abnormality is strongly associated with Ebstein’s anomaly?
79. What is Bozzolo’s sign?
80. What is the description for the physiologic mechanism that causes polyuria in patients with complete heart block?
81. Which cancer commonly invades into the inferior vena cava and then extends into the right atrium, right ventricle and pulmonary artery?
82. What is the medical term given to sudden cardiac death related to arrhythmia from sudden, forceful chest wall trauma?
83. What is de Musset’s sign?
84. Endocarditis with this organism is indicative of colon cancer.
85. What is the Gorlin equation?
86. What arrhythmias does digoxin toxicity NOT cause?
87. What is ajmaline used for?
88. What is the Carey Coombs murmur?
89. What is the Carney complex?
90. What is the Raisinghani sign?
91. What is Friedreich's sign?
92. What is McConnell’s sign?
93. What is a Dressler’s beat?
94. What maneuver should be done in a patient with an air embolism?
95. What is Duroziez’s sign?
96. How is the Venturi effect described, including how it relates to cardiac disease?
97. What is Still's murmur?
98. What is the Goetz sign?
99. What is Hamman’s sign?
100. What is Hills sign?
101. What is Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome?
102. What Lancisi’s sign?
103. What is Chapman’s sign?
104. What is Lenegre’s disease or Lev’s disease?
105. What is Loeffler’s endocarditis?
106. What is Mayne’s sign?
107. What is the McGinn-White sign?
108. What is mitral facies?
109. What is Muller's sign?
110. What are Pardee waves?
111. What is Rosenbach’s sign?
112. What is the Shone’s complex?
113. What is Texidor’s twinge?
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