General Cardiology Part 3
- Sinus tachycardia
- Elevated jugular venous pressure
- Pulsus paradoxus (see below)
- Pericardial friction rub (from pericarditis if present)
- Distant heart sounds (from heart sound muffling related to the pericardial effusion)
- Kussmaul’s sign (rarely) - increase in jugular venous pressure during inspiration
"Pulsus paradoxus" which is present in cardiac tamponade reflects a decrease in systolic blood pressure with inspiration of more than 12 mm Hg. Pulsus paradoxus also occurs in severe asthma or COPD exacerbations.