Increased sedentary time and behaviors may increase risk for CVD in U.S. Hispanic adults, according to study results published in Circulation.
“Prolonged sedentary time is associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic risk factors, regardless of physical activity in U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults,” Qibin Qi, PhD, assistant professor of epidemiology and population health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System, New York, told Cardiology Today.
Researchers gathered data from 2008 to 2011 on 12,083 participants aged 18 to 74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, who lived in four U.S. metropolitan areas (Chicago, Miami, San Diego and the Bronx, New York). They also conducted comprehensive interviews on personal and family characteristics, health status and healthy behaviors, and performed blood draws.
Participants wore accelerometers, which measured sedentary time in 1-minute epochs during a 7-day period for 16 hours per day (mean time, 11.9 hours/day), sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous activity levels.
Participants were stratified into quartiles based on sedentary time. Those in the highest risk group were sedentary for more than 13 hours per day, regardless of whether they met the weekly exercise criteria (150 minutes of moderate activity, 75 minutes of vigorous activity or an equivalent combination).
Compared with the most active participants, those with the highest sedentary time had 6% lower levels of HDL, 16% higher levels of triglycerides and 29% higher insulin resistance, according to a press release. These differences were consistent across age, sex, race/ethnicity and physical activity levels. The most inactive participants also were more likely to be unemployed, of Dominican or Puerto Rican background, have poor diets, be less likely to utilize health care and medications, and reside in the Bronx.
Even for participants who met 2008 U.S. physical activity guidelines, lengthy periods of sedentary time were associated with increased fasting glucose (P for trend = .02), 2-hour glucose (P for trend = .003), insulin resistance (P for trend = .001) and fasting insulin (P for trend < .001), and decreased HDL (P for trend = .014).
Sedentary time varied in the cohort studied, from 11.5 hours per day among participants of Mexican background to 12.5 hours per day among participants of Dominican background.
The study findings are consistent with previous data showing that sedentary time has a strong association with triglycerides and insulin resistance but not BP and cholesterol levels, and correlation with 2-hour plasma glucose but not C-reactive protein.
Qi and colleagues recommended that physicians work with their U.S. Hispanic/Latino patients to help them manage diet, increase exercise time, make lifestyle modifications to reduce sedentary behavior and receive proper medications.
“Efforts to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors may play an important role in prevention strategies,” Qi told Cardiology Today.
The researchers noted several limitations of the study, including a lack of data on CVD events and incident diabetes in these populations. Qi said future studies will include analysis of the optimal length and frequency of breaks from sedentary time. – by Trish Shea, MA
Disclosure: The study was supported by Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NHLBI, Northwestern University, San Diego State University, University of Miami and University of North Carolina. The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.