Improved mortality rates and decreases in CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes were associated with a higher consumption of nuts, particularly tree nuts, according to data published in Circulation Research.
Gang Liu, PhD, of the department of nutrition at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and colleagues sought to analyze the risk for CVD, including CHD and stroke, as well as all-cause and cause-specific mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes in relation to the consumption levels of specific types of nuts.
Researchers identified data from 16,217 men and women with diabetes from two studies between 1980 and 2014. Nut consumption through a food frequency questionnaire was validated and updated every 2 to 4 years.
Liu and colleagues identified 3,336 CVD incidents and 5,682 deaths during nearly 500,000 person-years of follow-up.
Participants with an intake of five or more 28-g servings of nuts per week had lower risk for total CVD incidence (adjusted HR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.98; P for trend = .01) and CHD incidence (aHR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.67-0.96; P for trend = .005) compared with participants eating less than one serving per month.
Compared with the group with the lowest consumption of nuts, the group with the highest consumption had lower risk for CVD mortality (aHR = 0.66; 95 % CI, 0.52-0.84; P for trend < .001) and all-cause mortality (aHR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.77; P for trend < .001).
Increased tree nut consumption was associated with lower risk for CVD, CHD incidence, CVD mortality, cancer and all-cause mortality. Peanut consumption was only tied to lower all-cause mortality (P for trend < .001 for all).
Patients who increased nut consumption after diabetes diagnosis had a 25% lower CVD mortality, 27% lower all-cause mortality, 15% lower CHD risk and an 11% lower risk for CVD compared with patients who did not change their total nut consumption.
Liu and colleagues identified no association between total nut consumption and risk for stroke incidence or cancer mortality.
“Our findings provide new evidence that supports the recommendation of including nuts in healthy dietary patterns for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and premature deaths among individuals with diabetes,” Liu said in a press release. “It seems never too late to improve diet and lifestyle after diagnosis among individuals with type 2 diabetes” – by Earl Holland Jr.
Disclosures: Liu reports no relevant financial disclosures. Please see the study for all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.