Probiotics: A Clinical Guide

Martin H. Floch, MD; Adam S. Kim, MD

Chapter 24: Probiotics Use In Bacterial Vaginosis And Vulvovaginalcandidiasis (continued)

Paola Mastromarino, PhD; Beatrice Vitali, PhD; Luciana Mosca, PhD

The female lower genital tract, consisting of vagina and ectocervix, is an ecological niche where several aerobe and anaerobe microorganisms coexist in a dynamic balance. The homeostasis of the vaginal ecosystem results from complex interactions and synergies among the host and different microorganisms that colonize the vaginal mucosa.1,2 This ecosystem is dynamic with changes in structure and composition being influenced by age, menarche, time in menstrual cycle, pregnancy, infections, methods of birth control, sexual activity, use of medication, and hygiene.3