Probiotics: A Clinical Guide

Martin H. Floch, MD; Adam S. Kim, MD

Chapter 12: Neonatal Necrotizingenterocolitis (continued)

Erika C. Claud, MD; W. Allan Walker, MD

Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel necrosis that primarily afflicts premature infants after the initiation of enteral feeding. It is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the neonatal intensive care unit, affecting approximately 10% of premature infants <1500 g.1-4 The risk factors for this disease are prematurity, bacterial colonization, enteral feeding, and altered intestinal blood flow. However, the link between these risk factors and the pathogenesis of the disease has been elusive, and the pathophysiology is poorly understood. This chapter will…