Gut Instincts: A Clinician's Handbook of Digestive and Liver Diseases

Eric Esrailian, MD, MPH

Chapter 3: Dysphagia (continued)

Mark Ovsiowitz, MD

Dysphagia is a general term that refers to the symptom of “difficult swallowing.” Dysphagia can include difficulty with liquids, solids, or both. Although there are a vast number of causes of dysphagia, they generally can be classified into 2 main categories: oropharyngeal dysphagia and esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia refers to symptoms in which the underlying etiology is related to a problem with the mechanism or process of transferring food/liquid from the oropharyngeal cavity into the esophagus. Esophageal dysphagia refers to symptoms in which the underlying…