Quick Reference Dictionary for GI and Hepatology

Jonathan M Fenkel, MD

Appendix 9: Triggers For Hepatic Encephalopathy (continued)

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder seen with acute or chronic liver failure. In most cases, a precipitating event can be identified through a detailed history and evaluation; however, in up to 20% of cases, an etiology may not be identified. Common causes of HE are listed below. 1. Infection a. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis b. Urinary tract infection c. Pneumonia d. Cellulitis 2. Bacteremia a. Dietary indiscretion b. Increased sodium intake c. Increased protein intake d. Increased free water intake leading to hyponatremia e. Alcohol use 3. Hepatic…