Gut Instincts: A Clinician's Handbook of Digestive and Liver Diseases

Eric Esrailian, MD, MPH

Chapter 23: Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (continued)

Kunut Kijsirichareanchai, MD; Rome Jutabha, MD

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is generally referred to as blood loss emanating from the colorectal region of the digestive tract. Patients with LGIB most commonly present with hematochezia (bright red blood per rectum) or maroon-colored stools (coagulated blood/clots). Melena (black tarry stool) usually signifies upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), but can also occur in patients with LGIB if the bleeding originates from the cecum or right colon in the setting of slow colonic transit. Patients with severe LGIB, as evidenced by acute signs (eg, anemia, tachycardia, postural…